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DNA Transcription

DNA Transcription Overview
by

Reginald Yiu

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of DNA Transcription

Reginald Yiu DNA TRANSCRIPTION TRANSCRIPTION is the process whereby DNA acts as a template for RNA formation
RNA molecule formed serves various important functions within the cell
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, etc
Ultimately, the product of transcription is mRNA which is translated into proteins The Central Dogma DNA RNA Protein
In eukaryotes, DNA is stored in the Nuclear membrane
RNA provides a method for information transfer from the nucleus into the cytoplasm What is RNA? Ribonucleic Acid
Ribose vs. Deoxyribose
Uracil vs. Thymine
Single vs. Double What is RNA? RNA Polymerase (RNAP) RNAP is used to catalyze and elongate the RNA molecule
Three primary types:
RNAP I : rRNA
RNAP II : mRNA
RNAP III : tRNA
Sigma unit is a binding co-factor RNAP binds to a promoter site May be as many as 7 elements
Various promoter sites have been observed
TATA box
CAT box
CpG islands
Different sigma factors bind to different promoter sites RNAP are large enzymes composed of multiple subunits and binds many other factors Enhancer and silencer sequences alter the 3D structure of DNA thus influencing transcription Elongation Builds from 5' to 3'
RNAP reads antisense strand from 3' to 5'
Sense strand is NOT read
Introns and exons are all transcribed
5-8 AA / sec Termination Termination depends on RNAP type
RNAP I: Termination Factors
RNAP II : complex cleavage associated with self
RNAP III : Termination Sequence Post transcriptional Modifications Primary RNA capped at 5' end
Primary RNA tailed with poly-A tail at 3' end
RNA splicing now occurs (introns removed)
completes mRNA transported into cytoplasm Image Source: http://www.tokresource.org/tok_classes/biobiobio/biomenu/transcription_translation/index.htm Image Source : http://edu.glogster.com/glog.php?glog_id=12876185&scale=54&isprofile=true Image Source: http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/nucacids.htm References Nussbaum RL, McInnes RR, Willard HF. Genetics in medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. Scitable by Nature Education [homepage on the internet]. Cambridge: Nature Education; 2012 [updated 2008; cited 9 Sept 2012]. Available from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/dna-transcription-426 Izban MG, Luse DS. Factor-stimulated RNA polymerase II transcribes at physiological elongation rates on naked DNA but very poorly on chromatin templates. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1992; 267: 13647–55. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular biology of the cell. 4th ed. New York: Garland Science; 2002 Image Source: Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular biology of the cell. 4th ed. New York: Garland Science; 2002 Image Source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap10/Chap10.html Image Source: http://www.genome.gov/Images/EdKit/bio2c_large.gif Image Source: Nussbaum RL, McInnes RR, Willard HF. Genetics in medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. Image Source: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/dna-transcription-426
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