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Photosynthesis and Respiration

Biology project
by

Sam Stewart

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis and Respiration Photosynthesis So what happens in photosynthesis? Sam Stewart, Mary Irwin, and Ryan Finn present: We all know that organisms need energy to carry out their functions. Some organisms get that energy from sunlight. And these organisms do so through the process of... What kinds of organisms use the process of photosynthesis? Plants Algae And some bacteria Carbon Dioxide and Water along with energy from sunlight are used to create organic compounds (like carbohydrates) and oxygen molecules But how? In plants, The water is collected in the roots and then sent to the leaves The carbon dioxide is collected in the leaves Here's where it gets interesting: Light enters the cell and is absorbed into the chloroplasts. Sunlight also enters in the leaves The process is similar in other organisms that use photosynthesis as well. When the light is absorbed into the chloroplasts, it enters the thylakoids. In the thylakoids are pigments that absorb a certain color of light. The most important of these pigments is chlorophyll which absorbs green light. When the pigments absorb the light, they absorb some of the energy of the light. When the light energy is absorbed, electrons in the chlorophyll are sent down a chain of pigment molecules eventually creating NADPH. Pigments other than chlorophyll send their harvested energy to the chlorophyll pigments. These electrons are replaced by water being split into protons, electrons, and oxygen. The oxygen is then released. Energy from protons from the water and protons pumped in from the stroma (a solution that surrounds the thylakoids) is then converted to energy in ATP. The Calvin Cycle Some of the PGAL molecules form organic compounds like sugars other products of this process are used to fuel the cycle. This is where the carbon dioxide comes into play.
The carbon dioxide is combined with a special carbohydrate (RuBp) and then the ATP and the NADPH from before are added too. This brings up an interesting question: Respiration When organisms have the organic compounds they need, They next have to convert those compounds into the energy they need or store it. This occurs in the process of... So what is respiration? During cellular respiration, Cells break down organic compounds to release energy that is used to create ATP. So, how does cellular respiration occur? It all starts with glycolysis.... Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process in which a glucose molecule goes through a series of transformations that result in two molecules of pyruvic acid and two molecules of ATP. The Photosynthesis Song Next, the pyruvic acid will be put through the process of either anaerobic or aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration Also known as fermentation, anaerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is not present in a cell. Fermentation produces more NAD+ which helps keep the process of glycolysis going. Aerobic Respiration When there is oxygen in a cell that has just gone through the process of glycolysis, the cell will also under-go aerobic respiration. This process will directly create a large amount of ATP. The pyruvic acids are sent to the mitochondria and are made into a molecule called Acetyl CoA Next, in the Krebs Cycle, in the mitochondrial matrix, electrons are extracted from Hydrogen atoms to make ATP. This produces CO2, H20, 4 ATP's, and a lot of NADH. In the cristae of the mitochondria, the electrons of hydrogen atoms are carried by the NADH and go through another process of swapping electrons which eventually results in 32 ATP's being produced. This process takes place in the ctyosol. In what kinds of organisms does respiration take place? Fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. All organisms use the process of Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Song Stats Reactants: glucose and oxygen Products: ATP, carbon dioxide, water Aerobic Respiration Fermentation Products: ethanol or lactic acid, carbon dioxide, ATP Aerobic Animals Anaerobic Some fungi Yeast Zebra
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