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CH 1 History of Cosmetology

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Clarice Buie

on 28 August 2013

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Transcript of CH 1 History of Cosmetology

Mrs. Buie & Mrs. Jones
History and Career Opportunities
About the hairstyles and cosmetics used in ancient Egypt, Rome, and Greece.

In addition, sites can be found that depict styles of each century and many decades back to the 13th century.

Write a brief essay on hairstyles and cosmetics and how they impacted each generation.

Extra credit for pictures that are downloaded and accompany the report.

Build different bulletin boards depicting different eras in hair design.
Research Paper
All questions at the end of the chapter

All vocabulary words

Research paper

B. continuing to learn
One thing that is key to your success in the field of cosmetology, regardless of which path you choose, is:
a)specializing in haircutting

b) continuing to learn

c) focusing on nail care

d) offering special facials

D. Distributor Sales Consultant
In the salon industry, a DSC is known as a:

a)District Service Consultant

b) Director of Service and Cosmetics

c) Distributor Service Consultant

d) Distributor Sales Consultant

A. strengthen the immune system

c) staff
The pole of the barber pole is thought to represent the ______________ that the patient would hold on to in order for the veins in the arm to stand out during bloodletting.

a) basin b) bandage

c) staff d) knife
b) Victorian age
One of the most austere and restrictive periods in history with respect appearance enhancement was the:

a) Renaissance b) Victorian age

c) Golden Age d) Middle Ages

d) Middle Ages
Women wore colored makeup on their cheeks and lips, but not on their eyes during the:

Ice Age b) Renaissance

c) Golden Age d) Middle Ages

c) black
In ancient Rome, poor women colored their hair:

a) blond b) red

c) black d) brown

a) blond
b) red
In ancient Rome, noblewomen tinted their hair:

blond b) red

c) black d) brown

c) cinnabar

b) Queen Nefertiti
In ancient Egypt, who erected a personal cosmetics factory next to the Dead Sea?

a) Queen Cleopatra b) Queen Nefertiti

c) Queen Hatsheput d) Queen Nebettawy

c) the Egyptians
The first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion and use cosmetics as part of their personal beautification habits, in religious ceremonies, and when preparing the deceased for burial were:

a) the Romans b) the Greeks

c) the Egyptians d) the Indians

c) coloring
Ancient records show that matter made from berries, tree bark, minerals, insects, nuts, herbs, and leaves were used for __________________.
a) styling b) waving

c) coloring d) conditioning

b) Ice Age
The earliest that archaeological studies reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced was in the _______________.

a) Renaissance b) Ice Age

c) Medieval period d) Roman Empire

b) cosmetology

Haircolor Specialist, Texture Specialist, Cutting Specialist, Salon Trainer, DSC, Cosmetology Instructor, Salon Manager

List some of the career opportunities available for licensed beauty practitioners.

In the 19th century barbers no longer performed minor surgeries or practiced dentistry.

Beginning in the 20th century, industrialization brought a new prosperity to the U. S. and hairstyling began to follow trends.

Americans were influenced by newspapers, magazines, radio, and motion pictures.

Each decade presented more and more grooming aids and cosmetics than ever before.

By the ‘70s, we saw more products for hair, skin, and nail care.

By the ‘80s there was an expanded awareness of physical fitness and nutrition and spas proliferated throughout the country.

Name the advancements made in cosmetology during the 19th and 20th centuries.
The origins are found in ancient cultures when it was often allied with the practice of medicine.

Ancient ruins and archaeological excavations have given us proof that even in prehistoric times men and women were interested in making themselves more attractive.

Paintings, sculptures, and the written word are the mean by which we can study the fascinating practices of hair, skin, and nail care by early cultures.

What are the origins of appearance enhancement.

Summary & Review

View Cosmetology DVD Series, Disk 1, Field of Cosmetology.
Summary & Review
You can enjoy a substantial “chunk” of that money if you are dependable, ambitious, willing to work hard and develop the technical skills and personal characteristics necessary to achieve success.

The positive behaviors necessary to achieve your desired level o success will not develop overnight. It is essential that you begin practicing success behaviors and patterns while you are in school so that you will be more competitive when you enter the workforce in a few short months
The world of cosmetology offers limitless opportunities and a wide variety of career avenues from which to choose.

It may interest you to know that the industry grossed $59.4 billion in revenue in 2005 according to the 2006 GreenBook.

Product educator; distributor; freelance editorial makeup artist, hairstyling, or nail technician for photo shoots, film, and more; school instructor; retail cosmetics salesperson or manager; medical esthetician.

Beyond defining your area of expertise, you should decide whether you want to work in a specialty salon, full-service salon, or day spa.
Other Opportunities

Opportunities include: inventory manager, department head, educator, special events manager, assistant manger, and general manager.

With experience, you could add “salon owner” to your list of career opportunities.
Salon Management

Spas are increasing in number and popularity

A day spa may offer nail, hair, body and skin services
Day Spa

After attaining success in the salon, you may feel called to share your knowledge with others.

One way to do that is by working as an Instructor in a licensed school.
Cosmetology Instructor

Also known as a DSC. You may be hired by a distributorship to perform training on products, trends, and techniques in the salons they serve.
Distributor Sales Consultant

You may be hired by a product company or large salon chain to work as a salon trainer.

Training may range from technical training to management training to interpersonal skills training.
Salon Trainer
After you develop you own unique way of cutting hair, you will want to continue to learn and train with other well-known haircutters.

You may become a trainer within your own salon for haircutting.
Cutting Specialist

You may become the texture specialist and trainer within your salon or even for a product manufacturer.
Texture Specialist

You may become the color specialist and trainer within your salon or even for a product manufacturer.
Haircolor Specialist

Once you’ve graduated from school, the opportunities are almost endless.
This century brought the age of specialization, day spas and men’s specialty spas.
21st Century
Tube mascara was introduced.

Weekly hair appointments boomed and then died.

Vidal Sassoon introduced geometric cuts.

Hair weaving with foils was introduced and hair color became gentler.

Spa pedicures first offered in 1998.
The End? Or what styles or ads will come in the next millennium?
This brings us up to the 1990's and to a more natural look. People, once again, want to start growing their hair out, but with variations.
Individuality is also the key word for hairstyles in 2000s.
In the year 2000 everyone was about straight hair and some even had colored tips as shown on Christina Aguilera.
The 1990's would start to see the dawn of feathering, razoring, shagging, etc. The hair would no longer stand up on end as in the 80's styles, but it would be cut more to suit the individual daily needs of each person. We would start to see hair not getting cut as often, just trimming.
The 1980's also introduce us to mouse and gel. Two staples of hair care we can no longer live without. These two products are actually very drying to our hair and we start to see more hair damage in the 80's.
Gone are the long locks of the 70's. Women (and men) need more time so the shorter the time spent on their do's the better.
The 1980's was about to deliver a different look altogether. This was to become the era of the "superwoman". More and more we would see mom's going back to work, but having a family at the same time. This required some time constraints to be removed. This would include a shorter, easier haircut to maintain.
At the same time there was increasing affluence. Hairstyles reflected both sides of the social coin.
By the mid 1970s women had adopted a variety of hairstyles many based on blow drying of hair into specific flicked positioning that emanated from a centre parting. 
The late 60s also brought the unisex styles.
Girls with extremely curly hair would collect large frozen grapefruit cans and use those in place of the smaller rollers. Any woman who went to high school between 1963 and 1967 will tell you they probably never had a good night's sleep
Around 1964, high school girls took the bouffant to new heights. It was called the "beehive". Girls would set their hair every night in huge rollers, with a gel solution called Dippity Do and proceed to sleep in them.!
Stars like Marilyn Monroe and Jayne Mansfield led the way in terms of helping women loose the confines they had previously been confined to.
To create these styles, hair was wound around rollers that produced a fuller rounder look than the flat pin curls of the previous decades. The client was then placed under a hooded dryer and, depending on the length of her hair, she might sit there for an hour. After drying, the hair was "teased" or "backcombed" to give it maximum height.
The bouffant surfaced in the late 1950s and started a new trend of styling that will forever be looked back upon with a smile and curiosity.
Fifties hairstyles were soft and curly and often short. Straight hair was out, ponytails were in. A lot of effort went into hair styles - almost every women was an expert at pinning, rolling and curling and perms were also very popular.
Ponytails for girls were cool; guys "train" their hair into greased back ducktails.
The poodle frenzy of the Fifties gave birth to a hairstyle - namely, the poodle cut. No better example can be found than the hair of Lucille Ball.
Optimism abounded during the post-war years of the 1950s. The focus was on the baby-booming family and being a good housewife which was the ultimate measure of success.
The 1940s was a time of glamour. False eyelashes, bright red lipstick, penciled eyebrows, and hair either curled or styled up was popular. The "Pin Up" girl emerged, both in drawings and photographs.
Haircolor was still a very precarious adventure. Peroxide was mixed with ammonia, and Ivory soap flakes were added to make a paste. The hair often wound up on the beauty salon floor.
The movie Gone With The Wind inspired a new look for women's hair. The hair was pulled back and contained in a woven net called a snood.
During the Second World War, many women who copied her were working on wartime production lines and were getting their hair caught in the machinery. The United States government made a plea to Paramount Pictures to change her style.
In the 1940s, Hollywood was a huge inspiration during the Forties for women's hairstyles. Veronica Lake was famous for her blonde hair, seductively trailing down across one eye.

The cold wave method of permanent waving was introduced.
The preheat perm method was introduced in 1931.

In 1932, Ralph L. Evans and Everett G. McDonough invented the first machineless permanent wave using chemicals and moistened pads.

Also, Lawrence Gelb introduced the first permanent haircolor product and found the company still known today as Clairol.
The "bob" haircut emerged on the fashion scene in the late 1920s with much debate and outrage. Women’s hairstyles had been worn long, and mostly styled up, for over 100 years.
Long metal clamps were applied to the waves to keep them in place while the client sat under the dryer. For a fancier evening look, colorful combs, barrettes with beads and feathers, and headbands were placed within the hair.
A gel was applied to the hair and then, while using the fingers in unison with a skilled comb, waves were sculpted into the hair. The ends of the hair were then wound around the finger and pinned, thus named "the pin curl".
Not everyone looked good with a flat, sleek, bob so waves and curls were incorporated into the craze.
Cosmetic advertising expenditures soared and became one of the largest sources for advertising dollars in women’s magazines by end of 1920s.
Madame C. J. Walker began selling her scalp conditioning and healing treatment called “Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower.”

In 1910, she moved her company to Indianapolis where she built a factory, hair salon, and training school.
Permanent Wave Machine
Charles Nessler invented a heavily wired machine that supplied electrical current to metal rods for perm waving.
Max Factor introduced makeup that wouldn’t cake or crack.

The invention of motion pictures changed the standards of feminine beauty.

The era also brought a new prosperity to the United States and all forms of beauty began to follow trends.


Basin was the vessel that caught the blood.
1. Pole

The staff

Patients held a staff tightly in order for the veins in the arm to stand out.

The barber pole is the symbol of the barber surgeon and results from the bloodletting procedure.
Women used facial masks and packs of honey, eggs, milk, oatmeal, fruits vegetables, and other natural ingredients.

Women pinched their cheeks and bit their lips to induce natural color rather than use cosmetics.
Victorian Age

This was one of the more austere and restrictive periods in history.

Makeup and showy clothing were discouraged.
Fragrances and cosmetics were used.

Highly colored preparations for lips, cheeks, and eyes were discouraged.

Hair was carefully dressed and adorned with ornaments or headdresses.
Period when Western civilization made transition from medieval to modern history.

They shaved their eyebrows and hairline to show a great expanse of forehead for a look of greater intelligence.

Men and women wore elaborate, elegant clothing.
Began in 476 AD and lasted until about 1450.

Tapestries, sculptures, and artifacts show towering headdresses, intricate hairstyles, and the use of cosmetics on skin and hair.

Women wore colored makeup on their cheeks and lips, but not their eyes.
A mixture of chalk and white lead was used as a facial cosmetic. Hair color indicated class in society.

Noblewomen wore red; middle-class women wore blonde; poor women wore black.

Romans developed methods for bleaching and dyeing hair.
Made lavish use of fragrances and cosmetics. They used facials made of milk and bread or fine wine.

Other facials were made of corn, flour, and milk or fresh butter.
Women wore white lead on their faces, kohl on their eyes, and vermilion on their cheeks and lips.

The red pigment was made by grinding cinnabar, a mineral that is the chief source of mercury, to a fine powder.

It was mixed with ointment or dusted on the skin the same way as modern-day cosmetics.
During the Golden Age (500 BC) hairstyling became a highly developed art.

They used perfumes and cosmetics in religious rites, grooming, and for medicinal purposes.

They built elaborate baths and excellent methods of dressing hair and caring for skin and nails.
In the Chou Dynasty (1100 BC) gold and silver were the royal colors.
During the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC), Chinese aristocrats rubbed a tinted mixture of gum Arabic, gelatin, beeswax, and egg whites onto their nails to turn them crimson or ebony.
The first evidence of nail care was prior to 3000 BC in Egypt and China.

Egyptian men and women of high social rank stained their nails with red-orange henna.
They were the first we know of to use cosmetics for beautification, religious ceremonies, and preparation of the deceased for burial, extracting herbal and flower essences through distillation.

Sharpened flints

2. Oyster shells

3. Bone

4. Animal sinew

5. Strips of hide

Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced as early as the Ice Age, over 10,000 years ago.
The term “barber” is derived from the Latin word barba, which means “the beard” or “the hair of the beard.”
Derived from the Greek word kosmetikos, which means “skilled in the use of cosmetics.”
1886 - Hairstyles from this time period were worn high in the front and combed over a "rat" which was often horse hair.
We should respect our roots and give tribute to all those hairstylists that paved the way for us to have a great profession.

This field is recognized as one of the oldest professions in the world.
Divide into groups and brainstorm about all the qualities and skills you believe are required of a cosmetology professional and what you have observed during your own visits to a salon.

Ask for a volunteer to act as the “scribe” and record their responses on the flip chart or board.
As we learn more about this new chosen profession, our goals will change and grow as will our action plan.

Let’s take a look where this great industry began and what the future holds for you in your new career
Becoming aware of the history of cosmetology will help us understand the current trends
and also help us plan for the future success
of the salon

We must also understand what our own goals and objectives are in the field of cosmetology (or related discipline) before we can put into place a plan of action for success.
Inspirational thought for the day:
“Everyone got where he is has had to begin where he was.”
—Robert Louis Stevenson
Mrs. Buie
In history, bloodletting was a medical procedure thought to:

a)strengthen the immune system

b) reduce the chance of blood clotting

c) diminish the risk of infection

d) strengthen the heart rate
In ancient Rome, middle-class women colored their hair:

a) blond b) red

c) black d) brown
In ancient Greece, what mineral was ground to make brilliant red pigment?

copper b) nickel

c) cinnabar d) kohl
The art and science of beautifying and improving the skin, nails, and hair, and the study of cosmetics and their application is called:
a) esthiology b) cosmetology
c) nail technology c) barbering
Enter, the 1970's, freedom of speech, freedom from constriction, carefree, free flowing everything! It was a time to experiment and we did! In the 1970's everyone wanted his or her hair to be straight and long.
Hairpieces became a component to add to your beehive to make it even bigger. Cascades and falls were worn with adornment to add a quick fix to hairstyles. It was a big fashion rage in 1966.
After World War I, many women kept their wartime jobs or opted for another career. They saw a need for an easier hairstyle to accommodate their busier lifestyle. Suffragettes bobbed their hair to celebrate their emancipation.
3. White bandages

Stop blood

The bandages used to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to dry.

The stained bandages would twist around the pole forming the red/white candy-cane pattern.

Another interpretation is that the red represented the blood, blue the veins, and white the bandages.

Barbers still use the symbol today.
Kings and queens wore deep red; lower rank wore only pale colors.

They used minerals, insects, berries, tree bark, nuts, herbs, and leaves to color hair, skin, and nails.
Cosmetology encompasses the broad range of specialty areas including hairstyling, nail technology, and esthetics.
Full transcript