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Navigating the Nervous System (Beverly Crocker)
Transcript of Navigating the Nervous System (Beverly Crocker)
Nervous System 2. Processes information and makes decisions 3. Controls organs and muscles Functions: 1. Receives information from sensory neurons 4. Maintains homeostasis through control of body function such as heart rate, body temperature, and breathing. Neurons Carry the information in the nervous system Nerve impulses begin at the dendrite tip,
travel through the cell body, and leave the
neuron through the axon tip. Neuron Types Sensory Motor Interneuron Originates from a sensory organ
such as the tongue, eyes, nose,
ears, or skin, to the brain. Connects brain to the different muscle groups Forms connections between other neurons that together perform thinking and memory
functions. A nerve impulse travels down the body of the axon, when it reaches the end the tip of the axon secretes a chemical.
The chemical secreted travels across the gap between the axon and the dendrite of the next neuron.
This gap is called a synapse. The chemical signal triggers a nerve impulse in the dendrite, which travels to the end of that neuron’s axon. How a Nerve Impulse Travels: Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain & Spinal Cord All Motor and Sensory Neurons Leaving the Spinal Cord The spinal cord is a bundle of sensory and motor neutrons leading from the brain to the rest of the body. It is protected by the vertebra of the spine. There are about 100 BILLION neurons in the brain. Connects all of the body’s organs and muscles to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), so that the organs and muscles can be controlled by the brain.
There are 43 pairs of neuron bundles (nerves) reaching from the spinal cord to every part of the body Somatic Autonomic The part of the peripheral nerves that controls the voluntary muscle movements The part of the peripheral nerves that controls involuntary muscles and organs. Brain The three main parts of the brain are the:
Brainstem The cerebrum controls all thinking, reasoning and memory functions, as well as voluntary muscle control.
The left half of the cerebrum generally does the analytical work such as math, which the right half of the cerebrum does the creative thinking Cerebrum Cerebellum The cerebellum controls the balance and movement of the body, using information from the eyes, ears, and signals from all muscles. Brainstem The brainstem controls the organs and involuntary muscles. The spinal cord cannot repair itself if broken, and cannot be repaired by surgery
If the spinal cord is cut or damaged, all muscles and sensory neurons below the cut will be unusable
Example, if the spinal cord is cut at the top of the shoulder, a person will lose all use of their arms and legs, and will have no sense of touch below the neck A reflex is a response to a stimulus that occurs WITHOUT the brain’s involvement. Relflex The pain nerve impulse travels along the spinal cord to a interneuron, where a motor neuron impulse is immediately sent back down to the muscles, telling those muscles to move away from the pain source. The brain receives the pain message a moment later, after the reflex has occurred. Between Neurons Play to Watch a Nerve Impulse Travel