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Bilingual Education: History & Rationale

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Wil Echeverria

on 17 November 2014

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Transcript of Bilingual Education: History & Rationale

Why Bilingual Education?
According to Kwong (Beykont, 2000, pp. 45 – 49),
pedagogical benefits
of BE include:

Transfer of previous skills
: literacy skills in their native language transfer into English
Understandable instruction
: allows ELLs to continue learning without interruption since they can comprehend the instruction
Academic challenge
: ELLs can engage in appropriate level of academic curriculum
Emotional benefits
: provides easier student adjustment to new environment and develop a healthy bicultural identity by providing role models (teachers, peers, and historical figures)
Goals of BE
According to the National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE), the goals of BE, include:
teaching English,
fostering academic achievement,
acculturating immigrants to a new society,
preserving a minority group’s linguistic and cultural heritage,enabling English speakers to learn a second language,
developing national language resources, or
any combination of the above
Three Orientations Toward Language
Ruíz (1984) has described the historical development of three orientations toward language in the US.
A Brief History of BE
1954
- Brown v Board: enforced segregation of schools inherently promotes inequality and ordering its immediate desegregation
1964
- Title VI of the Civil Rights Act: allowed funds to be withheld from school districts that maintained segregation or did not promote integration
1968 & 1974
- Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Bilingual Education Acts): Provides supplemental funding establishing programs to meet the "special educational needs" of ELLs
A Brief History of BE
1954
- Brown v Board: enforced segregation of schools inherently promotes inequality and ordering its immediate desegregation
1964
- Title VI of the Civil Rights Act: allowed funds to be withheld from school districts that maintained segregation or did not promote integration
1968 & 1974
- Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Bilingual Education Acts): Provides supplemental funding establishing programs to meet the "special educational needs" of ELLs
Attack on BE
1998
- Proposition 227: ended the bilingual education programs throughout the state of California
2000
- Proposition 203: limits the type of instruction available to ELLs in Arizona
2002
- No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB): imposed a high-stakes testing system that promoted the adoption and implementation of English-only instruction
2002
- Massachusetts Question 2: requires that all public school children must be taught English (all subjects taught in English & being placed in English language classrooms), with limited exceptions
Types of BE programs
A Brief History of BE (cont'd)
1974
- Lau v Nichols: "There is no equality of treatment by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculum, for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education."
1981
- Castañeda v. Pickard: Set the standard for the courts in examining programs for LEP students
1981
- Plyler v. Doe: Undocumented immigrant children cannot be denied a free public education
Bilingual Education: History & Rationale
A response to address the needs of an increasing population of English language learners (ELLs) in the US
An instructional practice of teaching ELLs in their native language (L1) while developing English language skills
Possesses cultural, linguistic, political, and pedagogical significance
What is Bilingual Education?
Local BE Program
Corvallis SD
: Dual Language Immersion (K-12) "DLI helps prepare all students to meet the academic, social, and linguistic challenges of living in a global society. In addition to becoming fluent in another language besides English, students learn to appreciate other cultures and come to a deeper understanding of their own."

"Worldwide research and our own district data show that dual language is effective in closing the achievement gap. DLI also is very effective in raising the achievement levels of non-ELL students."
Local BE Program
Salem-Keizer PS
: "Dual Language education programs integrate native English speaking students with native Spanish speaking students for content and language instruction."

"Salem Keizer Schools offers two pathways for immersion:
Dual Language
and
Literacy Squared
. Both programs are housed in neighborhood schools. Literacy Squared occurs at specific levels at selected elementary schools, while Dual Language is in specific feeder elementary, middle and high schools for North Salem High and West Salem High."
My Views on BE
As a
critical educator
, I strive to challenge instructional practices that do not promote equity, that continue to marginalize culturally and linguistically diverse students.

I believe bilingual education:
Is a necessary response to address the needs of ELLs
Validates the cultural and linguistic background of diverse students
Positions ELLs’ first languages as a resource that should be developed fully
Programs such as Dual Language Immersion promotes the academic achievement of all students
Aims at empowering bilingual and bicultural leaders of tomorrow
References
Beykont, Z. F. (2000).
Lifting Every Voice: Pedagogy and Politics of
Bilingualism
. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Publishing Group .

Bilingual Education. (n.d.). In
National Association for Bilingual
Education
. Retrieved from http://www.nabe.org/BilingualEducation

Dual Language. (n.d.). In
Salem-Keizer Public Schools
. Retrieved from
http://www.salkeiz.k12.or.us/departments/dual-language

Dual Language Immersion (n.d.). In
Corvallis School District 509J
.
Retrieved from http://www.csd509j.net/en-us/districtinformation/keyinitiatives/duallanguageimmersioninmersiondoble.aspx

Freeman, D.E. and Freeman, Y.S. (2011).
Between worlds: Access to
second language acquisition
. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Nieto, D. 2009. A brief history of bilingual education in the United
States.
Perspectives on Urban Education
, Spring: 61–72.
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