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Introduction to Hematology
Transcript of Introduction to Hematology
fibrinogen & coag proteins
use EDTA for hematology tests
use sodium citrate for coag studies
leukocytes (5 types)
(-poiesis, combining form meaning "making" or "formation")
Fetus - blood cells are made in fetal liver
as fetus develops, bone marrow takes over the function
in adults, cells are formed in bone marrow
lymphocytes are also produced in spleen and lymph nodes
The term hematopoiesis refers to the formation and development of the cells of the blood. In humans, this process begins in the yolk sac in the first weeks of embryonic development. By the third month of gestation, stem cells migrate to the fetal liver and then to the spleen (between 3-7 months gestation these two organs play a major hempatopoietic role).
Next, the bone marrow becomes the major hematopoietic organ and hematopoiesis ceases in the liver and spleen.
Every functional specialized mature blood cell is derived from a common stem cell. These stem cells are therefore, PLURIPOTENT.
It has been estimated that there is approximately 1 stem cell per 104 bone marrow cells. These stem cells represent a self-renewing population of cells. These cells also must have the potential to differentiate and to become committed to a particular blood cell lineage.
Blood cells originate in the reticuloendothelial tissue, which is a loose, fibrous, highly vascularized mesh of fibers, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Within the spaces of the tissue are found the precursor (blast) cells of the definitive adult types. For the sake of convenience, the reticuloendothelial tissue is divided into two general but imprecise types: lymphoid and myeloid tissue. Lymphoid tissue is primarily localized in the lymph nodes of the lymphatic system and is also in the spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. Several classes of white cells are produced, including the lymphocytes.
Myeloid tissue is normally limited in humans to the red bone marrow of the ribs, sternum, pelvis (flat bones), vertebrae, and proximal ends of the long bones of the body. It is concerned with the production of the erythrocytes and certain types of leukocytes. The latter are the granular leukocytes (called eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils on the basis of the affinity of granules in their cytoplasm for certain dyes) and megakaryocytes. Fragments of megakaryocytes form the blood platelets (thrombocytes), which are necessary for blood clotting
As we age, red is replaced with yellow marrow (produces fat, cartilage & bone); by old age almost all marrow is yellow