Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Language and Culture

No description
by

Pamela Baldacchino

on 3 June 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Language and Culture

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE IN A NUTSHELL LANGUAGE AS MEDIUM AND AS MEANS BY WHICH WE FORM KNOWLEDGE ABOUT OURSELVES AND SOCIETY AT LARGE TO CONSTRUCT MEANING - THAT IS DUALIST IN NATURE WHY? THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE DESCRIPTIVE WORD AND THE OBJECT IT DESCRIBES (THE BEING OF THE OBJECT - ITS SUCHNESS) TO UNDERSTAND CULTURE WE NEED TO EXPLORE HOW MEANING IS PRODUCED (SYMBOLICALLY) THROUGH THE SIGNIFYING PRACTICE OF LANGUAGE -
THE STUDY OF SIGNS STRUCTURALISM - STRUCTURE FORMS GRAMMAR WHICH
MAKES MEANING POSSIBLE SAUSSURE, 1960, BELIEVED THAT LANGUAGE CONSTRUCTS MEANING NOT BECAUSE AN OBJECT HAS AN INTRINSIC MEANING BUT BEACAUSE IT PRODUCES SIGNS (CONCEPTUAL OR PHONIC) THAT ARE DIFFERENT TO EACH OTHER. THIS SIGNIFYING SYSTEM IS THUS ANALYZED IN TERMS OF ITS CONSTITUENT PARTS - FORM - IMAGE OR TEXT OR SOUND SIGNIFIED - CONCEPTS OR MEANINGS SIGNIFIER ARBITRARY NATURE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SIGNIFIER AND SIGNIFIED - MEANS 'NOT FIXED'

THROUGH THE SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF SIGNS ALONG THESE AXIS-
THE SYNTAGMATIC (LINEAR SEQUENCE OF SIGNS THAT FORM SENTENCES)
AND
THE PARADIGMATIC (VERTICAL SELECTION OF SYNONYMS) IT IS FLUID BEING CULTURALLY AND HISTORICALLY SPECIFIC SIGNS ARE THEN ORGANISED INTO A SEQUENCE BASED ON THE CULTURAL CONVENTIONS OF THEIR USE WITHIN A PARTICULAR CONTEXT.....THEIR MEANING IS FIXED TEMPORARILY AND BECOME NATURALISED CULTURAL CODES HOW IS MEANING USED? HOW IS MEANING PRODUCED? BARTHES, 1972 DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN
FIRST LEVEL LANGUAGE
SECOND LEVEL LANGUAGE SIGNIFIER AND SIGNIFIED BOTH THESE SIGNS GENERATE DENOTIVE (FIXED OR LITERAL MEANING) FOR LEVEL OF CONNOTATION THE TWO SYSTEMS OF SIGNIFICATION ARE DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION WHEN CONNOTATIONS BECOME NATURALIZED,
THEY ACT AS CONCEPTUAL MAPS OF MEANING
BY WHICH WE MAKE SENSE OF THE WORLD...
LEADING TO MYTH FORMATION AND IDEOLOGY HE DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN TWO CODES: LINGUISTIC - SUCH AS LANGUAGE
VISUAL - SUCH AS ASSOCIATIONS MADE WITH WHAT ONE SEES - INTERPRETED DIFFERENTLY, DEPENDING ON CLASS, GENDER, NATIONALITY,ETC.
- CAN BE TEMPORARILY FIXED FOR INTERPRETATIVE PURPOSES SIGNS POLYSEMIC (BARTHES) MULTI-ACCENTUAL (VOLOSINOV, 1973) - HAVE AN INNER DIALECTIC QUALITY OR RANGE OF MEANING
- NOT FIXED BUT NEGOTIABLE, BECOMES ARENA OF CLASS STRUGGLE
POWER ATTEMPTS TO FIX THE SHIFTING MEANING OF SIGNS POST-STRUCTURALISM - REJECTS IDEA OF UNDERLYING STRUCTURE
WHICH CREATES MEANING; NO ESSENTIAL, UNIVERSAL CONCEPTS
EXIST SUCH AS CLASS, HISTORY AND MODES OF PRODUCTION CAN
REFER TO UNCHANGING ENTITIES IN THE WORLD.

NO DENOTATIVE MEANING CAN EXIST -
MEANING IS ALWAYS IN PROCESS DERRIDA,1976 SINCE WE THINK ONLY IN SIGNS, A FORM OF GRAPHIC IMAGE, WRITING IS AT THE ORIGINS OF MEANING. MEANING IS GENERATED THROUGH THE PLAY OF SIGNIFIERS, THUS CANNOT BE FIXED.

WORDS CARRY MULTIPLE MEANING - INCLUDING ECHOES OR TRACES OF OTHER MEANINGS DERIVED FROM OTHER WORDS.
WRITING IS A PERMANENT TRACE THAT EXISTS BEFORE AWARENESS OR PERCEPTION. THE PRODCUTION OF MEANING IS CONTINUALLY BEING DISPLACED AND DIFFERRED THROUGH THE INTERPLAY OF TEXTS- MEANING CREATED THROUGH DIFFERENCE (AS IN SAUSSURE) DERRIDA COMPARES THIS TO THE IDEA OF A POSTCARD WHICH CICULATES JUST LIKE MEANING BUT IS INTENDED FOR ONE PERSON DECONSTRUCTION TO TAKE APART WHY???? IN ORDER TO REVEAL THE TENSIONS BETWEEN WHAT A TEXT
MEANS TO SAY AND WHAT IT IS CONSTRAINED TO SAY BY DISMANTLING HIERARCHICAL BINARY OPPOSITIONS
SPEECH-WRITING
NATURE-CULTURE
REASON-MADNESS FOUCAULT, 1980 THEORIZES THAT MEANING IS TEMPORARILY STABILIZED INTO A DISCOURSE -
BY UNITING LANGUAGE AND PRACTICE THIS LEADS TO A DISCURSIVE FORMATION OF MEANING - A MAP OF MEANING THAT REGULATES WHAT CAN BE SAID AND BY WHO, WHEN AND WHERE. HE PROPOSED THAT THE MODERNIST 'REGIMES OF TRUTH' INVOLVES RELATIONS OF
POWER/KNOWLEDGE THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS THAT BRING ABOUT EFFICIENCY
PRODUCTIVITY
NORMALIZATION THIS IS WOVEN INTO THE FABRIC OF SOCIETY LACLAU, 1977 ARGUES THAT THERE NEED NOT BE ANY LINKS BETWEEN DISCURSIVE CONCEPTS - IT IS HEGEMONIC PRACTICE THAT SEEKS TO FIX TEMPORARY MEANING THERE NEED NOT BE ANY CONNECTION BETWEEN VARIOUS DISCOURSES OF IDENTITIES SUCH AS CLASS, RACE AND GENDER SUBJECTIVITY BECOMES A DISCURSIVE CONSTRUCTION CREATE AND COMMUNICATE ANTI-ESSENTIALIST POST-MARXIST POLITICS OF ARTICULATION (A FORM OF CONNECTION) FROM THE DISCURSIVE 'OUTSIDE' WE NOW MOVE TO THE REALM OF THE AFFECTIVE 'INSIDE' LACAN,1977 RELATES LANGUAGE TO PSYCHOANALYSIS BASED ON FREUD'S (1977) MODEL OF THE FRACTURED SELF - EGO, SUPEREGO AND UNCONSCIOUS. LANGUAGE WITH ITS STRUCTURE
AND SOCIAL MEANING SERVES TO
UNIFY THESE ASPECTS OF SELF BY
EXERTING SYMBOLIC CONTROL OVER
THE INDIVIDUAL
(LOSS OF CONTOL=PSYCHOSIS) IDENTIFIES THIS AS THE
SITE OF SIGNIFICATION, BASED ON
METAPHOR - REPLACEMENT OF ONE SIGNIFIER FOR ANOTHER IE, ROSE - VAGINA - FEMALE
NEEDLE-PHALLUS-MALE
AND METONYMY - DISPLACEMENT OF MEANING ALONG A CHAIN OF SIGNIFIERS
IE, BURNING CARS-URBAN RIOTS-STATE OF NATION LANGUAGE AS EMOTION CULTURAL CHANGE IS BROUGHT ABOUT WITH A SHIFT IN BEING - A DIFFERENT WAY OF FEELING ABOUT OTHER PEOPLE AND OURSELVES LANGUAGE AS USE - RELATED TO POST-MODERNISM AS TOOL WITTGENSTEIN,1953 THE UNSTABLE MEANING OF A WORD CAUSED BY THE RELATIONSHIP OF ITS
SIGNIFIERS IS STABILIZED BY THE SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORD PRAGMATIC NARRATIVES OR LANGUAGE-GAMES LANGUAGE BECOMES AN ARRAY OF MARKS
AND NOISES USED TO CO-ORDINATE ACTION
AND ADAPT TO THE ENVIRONMENT (LYOTARD, 1984 - TRUTH AND MEANING NOT UNIVERSAL, THEY ARE UNTRANSLATABLE, INCOMMENSURABLE) AS CAUSALITY RORTY,1989 A USEFUL TACTIC IN PREDICTING AND CONTROLLING ITS FUTURE BEHAVIUOR EXPLAINS HOW HUMANS COME TO ACT
AND SPEAK IN WAYS THAT HAVE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS LANGUAGE BECOMES ANTI-REPRESENTATIONAL TRUTH IS SUBJECTIVE - RELATIVE TO OUR VALUES TRUTH? TRUTH, KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING ARE LOCATED WITHIN LANGUAGE-GAMES IT IS THE TEMPORARY FIXING THROUGH SOCIAL CONVENTIONS OF METAPHORS A CONSENSUAL TERM - TRUTH ACQUIRED THROUGH ACCULTURATION MAY BE PARTIAL TO A PARTICULAR CULTURE OR WAY OF BEING CULTURE AS CONVERSATION AND PERFORMANCE PUSHES THE WAY FORWARD TOWARDS POLITICO-CULTURAL PLURALISM AND ENLARGEMENT OF SELF MEANING CULTURE KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE MEANING CULTURE PAM & JO DEFER -MEANING CREATED AMONGST A SHIFTING LANDSCAPE OF RELATIONS
Full transcript