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Imperialism and Progressivism

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Michelle Newcomb

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Imperialism and Progressivism

Imperialism and Progressivism "Seward's Folly" 1865
1880 1900
1909 Motives Open Door Policy Events 1909
1914 1914
1917 Events Imperialist Foreign Policy Progressive
Domestic Policy Sec. of State
Alaska claimed by Britain/Russia
Seward lobbies for purchase
1867: AK purchased for 7.2 million 1880
1900 "New Imperialism" Why?
*New worldwide markets
*More raw materials
*Outlet for domestic unrest International Darwinism *"survival of the fittest" among nations
*U.S. must be strong: religious, military, political
*extends Manifest Destiny beyond "New World"
*gain possessions and influence over weaker countries Reverend Josiah Strong (1885): Our Country
Anglo-Saxons "fittest"
Christian duty to colonize and spread religion
"superior" medicine, science, technology
racial superiority argument in Asia/Africa Missionaries Politicians Republicans allied with business leaders
Foreign affairs used to search for new markets
U.S. power through global expansion NY Gov.
Roosevelt Mass. Senator
Henry Cabot
Lodge Naval Power 1890: Alfred Thayer Mahan, Influence of Sea Power Upon History
strong navy is crucial to becoming a world power
Congress to finance construction of modern steel ships Popular Press Adventure stories increase circulation of newspapers/magazines

Increased public demand for
imperialist policy Latin America U.S. has long-time role of protector
Sec. of State James G. Blaine extends it designed as permanent co-op for trade
continues today: Organization of Pan American States Pan-American Conference of 1889 Using the Monroe Doctrine British Guiana in dispute with neighbor Venezuela
Pres. Cleveland and Sec. State Olney use threat of military force via Monroe Doctrine to get Britain to agree to arbitration
arbitrators rule in favor of Britain Turning Point: Britain becomes ally instead of adversary
Will be crucial in the two World Wars to come Sec. State
Olney President
Cleveland Spanish-American War NOTES:
3 reasons for Cuba as a target of American intervention:

Define jingoism:

4 reasons for the popular demand for war against Spain in Cuba:

4 justifications for McKinley to go against his better judgement and intervene in Cuba:

Justification for the annexation of Hawaii:

3 provisions of the peace treaty:

Controversy over the annexation of the Phillipines: Results of the war Anti-Imperialist League:

Insular Cases:

4 provisions of the Platt amendment:

How the war affected the South: Dollar Diplomacy Big Stick Policy Who? What? Why?

What is xenophobia?

How Boxer rebellion is tied to Open Door Policy:

Hay's second note--why? what? future implications? Sec. of State John Hay Panama Canal: TR sponsors revolution when
Columbia refuses to allow canal
Roosevelt Corollary: U.S. will intervene in Latin
America when needed
East Asia: TR mediates Russo-Japanese war, earns
Nobel Peace Prize
Japan: TR makes "gentleman's agreement" for CA
to repeal discriminatory laws, Japan to restrict
immigration to the U.S.
Great White Fleet: sent around the world to
demo U.S. naval power U.S. expansion through trade development instead of military force

Major obstacle: growing anti-imperialism feeling in the U.S.

1911: got U.S. included in railroads-in-China agreement
intervened in a financial problem in Nicaragua

Lodge Corollary: excluded non-European powers from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere Moral Diplomacy Democrat Woodrow Wilson calls for moral approach
He runs and win as an anti-Imperialist

Describe how Wilson "righted" these wrongs:
The Phillipines, Puerto Rico, The Panama Canal

Explain WHY this policy did NOT apply in the rest of Latin America: Wilson orders arms embargo against Mexican dictator Huerta Wilson orders arms embargo against Mexican dictator Huerta ABC Powers... Carranza... Pancho Villa... Ultimately... American seamen... Wilson orders... MEXICO Pre-industrial: focus on westward expansion, protectionism, limiting foreign influence Post-industrial: focus on increasing world power and expanding territory Imperialist Foreign Policy http://www.history.com/videos/roosevelt-fights-in-spanish-american-war Pre-industrial: focus on industrialization, urban expansion, immigration
Goals of Progressive Movement: limit business power, improve democracy, strengthen social justice THROUGH GOVERNMENT Before: homogenous, rural society of independent farmers
After: industrialized, mixed ethnicity, centered in cities

rising power of business
gap between rich and poor
violent conflict between labor and capital
corrupt political machines
Jim Crow South
lack of women's suffrage
perceived decline in morality

church leaders, African Americans, union leaders, middle class workers PLUS President Roosevelt, William Jennings Bryan, President Wilson
missionary spirit: preach against vice, care for the poor, Social Gospel
pragmatism: honest government and just laws can improve the human condition; experiment with new ideas and test them in action
laissez-faire: no longer practical with corporate domination of society and economy Events 1881: Atlantic Monthly, Henry Lloyd -- muckraking begins
Lloyd takes on Standard Oil Company and railroads
1888: MA institutes secret ballots
1889: initiatives, referendums, recalls begin to be adopted
1890: Jacob Riis, photojournalist, addresses tenement life in
his book, How the Other Half Lives
1898: Mayor Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones, Toledo--free kindergartens, night schools, playgrounds 1912/1914: Theodore Dreiser, books The Financier and The Industrialist -- vice of powerful businessmen
1913: 17th amendment = direct election of Senators

1-more difficult to top the sensationalism
2-pressure from banks and advertisers to tone it down
3-corporations more aware of the need for public relations

1915: direct primaries used in every state; many cities own and operate their water systems, gas lines, power plants and transportation systems

Temperance movement divided:
urban progressives don't like the idea
rural reformers felt that prohibition would clean up morals AND politics Events 1901: TR believes President should set Congressional agenda; mediates coal mine strike, gets concessions for miners
1902: Ida Tarbell, McClure's magazine, Standard Oil Company
1902: Newlands Reclamation Act: money for western irrigation
1902: TR sues Northern Securities railroad for Sherman violations -- "trustbusting" -- he wants to break up "bad" trusts and regulate "good" trusts
1903: Elkins Act prevents railroads from giving rebates
1904: Lincoln Steffens' book The Shame of the Cities, big city political corruption
1906: Hepburn Act allows ICC to set railroad rates
1906: Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle" prompts two laws:
1-Pure Food and Drug Act--food/drug labeling
2-Meat Inspection Act--regulators and sanitation rules
1908: National Conservation Commission established
Settlement house workers begin to get: better schools, juvenile courts, divorce law reforms, safety regulations, parole, death penalty limits 1915: direct primaries used in every state; many cities own and operate their water systems, gas lines, power plants and transportation systems

Temperance movement divided:
urban progressives don't like the idea
rural reformers felt that prohibition would clean up morals AND politics Taft's Presidency prosecutes twice as many trust suits as TR; U.S. Steel prosecution angers TR and he decides to run again
Conservation: Bureau of Mines, Appalachians added to nat'l parks, set aside federal oil reserve lands
1913: 16th Amendment provides for an income tax; popular b/c it only applied to the very rich Progressives give up on Taft--WHY?
1-defended and signed the high Payne-Aldrich tariff
2-fired TR's buddy Gifford Pinchot after criticism of Sec. Interior for giving federal land to private corporation
3-didn't support Progressives to reduce power of House Speaker Cannon
4-supported some conservative Congressional candidates
REPUBLICAN PARTY SPLIT FOR ELECTION OF 1912 Election of 1912 Socialist Party (new): Eugene Debs, candidate from 1900 to 1920; wanted radical public owned railroads, utilities, and iron/steel industries; moderate workers' comp, minimum wage, 8-hour workday and employee pensions
Republicans: Taft renominated by conservatives in the Party
Democrats: New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson; wanted limits on business and gov't, corruption reform, small business support--"New Freedom"
Progressive Party (new): Teddy Roosevelt, who nicknamed it the Bull Moose Party; wanted regulation of business and unions, women's suffrage, social welfare--"New Nationalism"
DEMS WIN, and control Congress--Progressives share of votes guarantee reforms will continue Wilson's Reforms 2nd Democrat elected since Civil War; first southerner since Taylor; was idealistic, intellectual, righteous, inflexible; believed in leading Congress and appealing to the people
attacked "triple wall of privilege": tariffs, banking, trusts
Underwood Tariff (1913): lowered tariff and raised income tax rates to 6%
Federal Reserve Act (1914): 12 banks and Federal Reserve Board
Clayton Antitrust Act (1914): strengthened Sherman, exempted unions
Federal Trade Commission (1914): investigate/act against any "unfair trade practice" other than banking or transportation
Federal Farm Loan Act (1916): 12 regional farm loan banks
Child Labor Act (1916): prohibits sale of products made by under 14s 1918: Supreme Court finds Child Labor Act unconstitutional in
Hammer v. Dagenhart Minorities No real progress... Suffrage Educational
Equality African Americans Women Even Progressives share in the racial prejudice of the time
Progressives see other reforms as more important African Americans take action on their own... W.E.B. DuBois
college educated
scholar, writer
The Souls of Black Folk, 1903
Niagara Movement, 1905
NAACP, 1908 Booker T. Washington
born a slave
head of the Tuskegee Institute
Atlanta Exposition Speech, 1895
National Urban League, 1911 Militant ideology

Political and social equality FIRST

These are prerequisites for economic independence Pragmatic ideology

Education and economic progress MOST important

Concentrate on learning industrial skills and improving economic conditions--political and social equality will follow Liberalized
Marriage and
Divorce Laws Reduced
Discrimination Recognition
Rights NAWSA
Carrie Chapman Catt NWP
Alice Paul Pragmatic approach
Began at state level, later sought suffrage amendment
Argued the vote would allow women to better care for their families Militant approach
Mass pickets, parades, hunger strikes
Focused on winning support from President and Congress 19th Amendment Tennessee makes it official on August 18, 1920...
(State Representative Harry Burn, age 22)
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