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Pre-World War II Timeline (A.K.A.) The Project of Death

Meigan- Adolf Hitler & Hideki Tojo....Ruby-Joseph Stalin & Benito Mussolini
by

Meigan Mueller

on 9 April 2014

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Transcript of Pre-World War II Timeline (A.K.A.) The Project of Death

1935
1936
1938
1931
1937
Pre-World War II Project
Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
"League of Nations: report on Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1933)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.
Italian Invasion Of Ethiopia
Date: July 29th, 1936 (When Germany Intervened)
The Spanish Civil War was against Nationalist (Fascists) and Republicans (Republicans, Socialists, Syndicalists, and Communists). Hitler supporting the Nationalist, hoping to tie the western democracies down and distract attention from his arms buildup. Spain could guarantee a supply of Spanish iron ore and other strategic materials and prove a testing ground for new weapons. Ultimately, 27 nations, including all the great powers, signed a nonintervention agreement pushed by London. Yet men and supplies continued to flow to the Fascist side from Germany and Italy. July 29, the Germans aided in the transport of 13,000 crack Spanish and Moroccan troops to Nationalist-controlled Seville. By the end of September, Germany had supplied 73 aircraft to assist the Nationalists; Italy had sent 56. In November 1936 the Germans formed the Kondor Legion of some 5,000 men and more than 100 aircraft. In April 1937, German and Italian aircraft bombed Guernica. Germans had also tried the method, carpet bombing This brought Germany and Italy together forming the Rome-Berlin Axis.
Neutrality Act of 1935
The United States passed five neutrality acts in the 1930's, prompted by the Isolationists in Congress at the time, to make America become isolated from the troubles between Europe and Asia. The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited the sale of arms to belligerents but allowed the sale of raw materials and the extensions of loans.
Japan Invasion of China
German Reoccupation of the Rhineland
Date: March 2, 1936
The 1919 Treaty of Versailles, demilitarized the entire Rhineland (the German territory west of the Rhine River) as well as a belt 30 miles east of the Rhine. In 1925, the German government voluntarily negotiated and signed the Locarno Pacts. Among their provisions was one guaranteeing continuation of the Rhineland demilitarization. Adolf Hitler chose to violate these treaties. His move to do so was hastily mounted with the preliminary directive issued on March 2, 1936. On March 7, Hitler sent nineteen battalions of infantry and thirteen artillery groups plus two antiaircraft battalions and two squadrons of twenty-seven single-seater fighter planes without reserves, a total strength of 22,000 men, as well as 14,000 local police. The troops were armed with little more than rifles and machine guns. Strategically, the remilitarization of the Rhineland provided both a buffer for the Ruhr and a springboard for invading France and Belgium. It also shook France's allies in eastern Europe. On October 14, 1936, Belgian leaders denounced their treaty of mutual assistance with France and again sought security in neutrality. Hitler had effectively destroyed the post–World War I security system.
German Involvement in the Spanish Civil War
In 1940 an act was passed by U.S congress to increase the armed forces and to pay for training through a peacetime draft, due to the war in Europe, Germany's defeat of Poland and France, and the small size of the U.S military. In June of 1940 Senator Edward R. Burke from Nebraska and Representative James W. Wadsworth from New York formally introduced this act as the Selective Service Act, and Training Act of 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the law on September 16 1940 and also issued a proclamation stating that all men ages 21 to 36 now had to register with the newly founded Selective Service Act.
Neutrality Act of 1937
In May of 1937 Permanent Neutrality was declared. The act revamped existing neutrality legislation to include a prohibition on the sale of arms or munitions to either side in a civil war as well as a declared war between states. Travel by American Citizens on beliggerent ships was made illegal at the time. Congress also had the president come up with a list of certain raw materials, such as oil, that had to be paid for on delivery by ships owned by the belligerent power. This had later been nicknamed "Cash and Carry". The effects of this act lasted about two years.
1939
1940
1941
The Battle of Britain
Anschluss
Date: April 9, 1940
The Germans took Denmark in only one day, but Norway proved more difficult to subdue. The Norwegian Campaign badly hurt the German surface navy; it lost three cruisers and ten destroyers, half of its total, but Hitler secured additional food production for the Reich and protection for his northern flank on the Baltic. Most important, the German navy secured locations for naval bases nearer to the Allied Atlantic convoy routes. It could now launch attacks into the North Atlantic and strike Allied convoys bound for the Soviet Union. Hitler also suffered the consequences of strategic overreach; by 1944, he had 365,000 of his best troops in Norway, a serious drain on his badly stretched resources.
U.S. Navy Escort of Merchant Ships
On September 3, 1939 Britain and France declared war on Germany, which was in response to Germany's invasion of Poland. The S.S Athenia, a British Ship, was sunken by a German U-30 Submarine. Twenty-eight of the passengers were Americans yet FDR chose to remain neutral. Britain first dropped leaflets over Germany, then began bombing German vessels while attempting not to hurt civilians on September 4th 1939. France then began it's offensive about two weeks later.
German Invasion of Soviet Russia
In 1940 an agreement between U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston L.S Churchill had been made. This agreement stated that Great Britain would now be able to use U.S destroyers. Another part to this agreement had been that the U.S now had full access to British bases in both North American and the Caribbean.
Soviet Invasion of Finland (Beginning)
Towards the end of 1939 Joseph Stalin had come to realize the sudden gain in power Hitler had received after the conquering of Poland. Stalin's plan was to gain more territory in attempt to keep Hitler away from the possibility of conquering Finland. However on Novemeber 30th, 1939 the Soviet Union invaded Finnland. Though Russia ranked very high in Superiority in comparison to Finland, it took about four months to fully conquer the area.
Soviet Invasion of Finland (End)
German annex of Czechoslovakia
Pact of Steel
After the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaimed a pact with German dictator Adolf Hitler in hopes of Hitler forcing both Britain and France to help expand Mussolini's land in Africa. However Mussolini's idea had not gone as planned, he was unsuccessful with his plans in Africa. Later in 1939 The Pact of Steel had been fully in effect, causing ties with bot Italy's and Germany's political and military forces. The Rome-Berlin axis was the first agreement that eventually led up to the Axis Powers during WWII in 1940.
FDR Quarantine Speech
On December 5th, 1934 Italian and Ethiopian border patrols came into conflict at WalWal (Ualual). Ethiopia immediately requested for the confrontation to be avoided due to the Italo-Ethiopian treaty from 1928, however Italy refused and demanded both an apology and the arrest of the Ethiopians involved. On October 3rd 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia once again, after on October 6th Adowa gave up the fight, and fell to Italy. The next day The League Council declared Italy as an aggressor state in violation of Article 12 of the covenant. This was then brought to the attention of The League of Nations and the committee decided to use many sanctions against Italy and all of them would be in effect on November 18, 1935.
"The Rape of Nanjing"
Carroll, James T., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Cash and Carry: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 29 Mar. 2014.
Molotov- Ribbentrop Pact
The Sudetenland was a horseshoe-shaped area in the western part of the former Czechoslovakia, along its borders with Germany, Austria, and Poland. In the mid-1930s Adolf Hitler began supporting and financing the activities of the Sudeten Nazi Party, led by Konrad Henlein. By 1938, Hitler was determined to secure the Sudetenland, even if it meant war. However, at the urging of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, Hitler agreed to a last-minute conference at Munich. In 1938 at the Munich Conference, as a result of Adolf Hitler's threats to begin a war over the union of the Sudetenland with Germany, the British and French governments agreed to award it to Germany. The Soviet Union, which opposed appeasement of Hitler, was not invited, and the Czechs were there only to sign. The conference participants agreed that the Sudetenland should be transferred to Germany. The Czechs were not allowed to negotiate and were only informed of the final decision. The Munich Conference is seen as the prime example of appeasement policy. Its loss meant that the remainder of the country was now defenseless.
Date: 11:00am on December 12, 1937
When the Japanese sinking of the U.S. Navy gunboat "Panay" in China. The Panay had on board 5 officers, 54 seamen, 4 embassy personnel, and 11 civilians. The Panay was escorting 3 Standard Oil barges. At about 1:30 p.m., 3 Japanese Mitsubishi bombers flew over, dropping 18 bombs on the 4 vessels. One struck the forward section of the Panay, knocking down her foremast. 12 additional Japanese aircraft arrived and dive-bombed the 4 vessels, and 9 other Japanese aircraft conducted repeated strafing runs for more than 20 minutes. By 2:04 p.m., the Panay was sinking. Two sailors and one civilian died of their wounds. Eighteen other wounded recovered. The Japanese government issued a formal apology, claiming that the attack was accidental, U.S. radio intercepts revealed otherwise. Japan also agreed to pay reparations to the United States in the amount of $2,214,007.36. U.S. public opinion became more strongly pro-China and anti-Japan. President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked the U.S. Congress to raise defense spending, requesting a 20% increase in the existing shipbuilding and replacement program, two additional battleships, two extra cruisers, and some smaller vessels.
German Invasion of France
Date: December 9th, 1937
It was a six-week period of terrorism after Japanese troops captured the Chinese capital in Jiangsu Province. During the six weeks, the Japanese occupiers deliberately instituted a reign of terror, designed to cow China's population into ready submission to Japanese invasion. In early December, Japanese troops converged on Nanjing. After Chinese troops rejected Japanese demands to surrender, on December 9 the Japanese opened a massive assault. Japan used machine guns, swords, bayonets, fire, live burial, and poison gas to massacre captured Chinese soldiers and any young men suspected of being such. Scattered atrocities and murders, often marked by great brutality, continued throughout the city for six weeks, as did heavy looting. Counts of how many soldiers and civilians died in the Nanjing Massacre vary ranging from 42,000 to 300,000. During this period, Japanese soldiers raped an estimated 20,000 women, most of whom were then killed. It was an early example of the use of organized brutality to cow and terrorize civilian populations characteristic of many World War II military occupations
"Peace in Our Time"
Lend-Lease
"Nations are fomenting and taking sides in civil warfare in nations that have never done them any harm. Nations claiming freedom for themselves deny it to others."
"Innocent peoples, innocent nations are being cruelly sacrificed to a greed for power and supremacy which is devoid of all sense of justice and humane considerations."

In this 1937 speech spoken by Franklin D. Roosevelt, he states that international aggressions taking place had created an 'Epidemic of world lawlessness". He promised to take precautions, and attempt to prevent the war from spreading to America. FDR promised Peace.

"If civilization is to survive, the principles of the Prince of Peace must be restored. Shattered trust between nations must be revived....Most important of all, the will for peace on the part of peace-loving nations must express itself to the end that nations that may be tempted to violate their agreements and the rights of others will desist from such a course. There must be positive endeavors to preserve peace."


Destroyers for Bases Deal
The Lend-Lease Act was passed by U.S Congress on March 11, 1941. This provided extension, credit, and supplies to the British Government due to the struggle between Great Britain and Nazi Germany at this time. Technically this act meant that the President of the U.S was able to grand aid to any country whose defense was viewed by him as vital to U.S security. Even though the U.S wasn't formally invloved in the war yet, this act clearly stated the alliance with Great Britain. Throughout the war U.S provided more than $50 billion to aid their allies.
Japanese Invasion of French-Indochina
In 1939 German dictator Adolf Hitler and Russian dictator Joseph Stalin signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact). Stalin hoped that the pact would settle Hitler's desire to take over lands East of Germany. However soon later, Nazi's invaded Poland. Around two years after the creation of the pact, it was terminated due to Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union in June of 1941.
Evacuation at Dunkirk
Date: May 19, 1940
Planning was begun in Britain for the possible evacuation of British forces from France. By May 25, the Germans had already taken the French port of Boulogne, leaving only Dunkerque and Calais among the Channel ports from which an evacuation might be attempted. Calais fell the next day. In Operation DYNAMO they actually evacuated 364,628 troops, of whom 224,686 were British. On May 26, as the German armored thrust was closing in on Dunkerque, Hitler made this into a hard-and-fast order and kept the panzers in place until May 29 to allow the German infantry to join them. Hitler's stop order was critical, allowing the BEF to escape and Britain to continue in the war. All manner of vessels participated in the evacuation. Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter pilots did what they could to protect the evacuation and disrupt the Luftwaffe. British and French destroyers rescued the most men. By the fourth day, 10 destroyers had been sunk or put out of action, leading the Admiralty to remove its modern destroyers and limit the number of fighter aircraft. The BEF lost more than 2,000 men. RAF Fighter Command lost 106 aircraft and 80 pilots, and an additional 76 aircraft. Of 693 British vessels, one-third (226) were sunk. The other Allies lost 17 of their 168 vessels taking part. The BEF lost 30,000 men and was forced to abandon mostl of its equipment in France. The 50,000-man French First Army held the advancing Germans from the beaches and allowing the British to get away, between 30,000 and 40,000 men of their troops were forced to surrender. The evacuation of Dunkerque was hardly a victory, but it did sweep away the half-heartedness that had marked the British war effort to that point, Britain would continue the fight.
Selective Service Act
Japan encouraged independence from colonial rule in some areas, especially in those lands that had been European or U.S. colonies. In French Indochina, the Japanese allowed the French colonial administration to remain in place for purposes of expediency, for Indochina could thus be held with fewer Japanese troops. In March 1945, however, with the war almost certainly lost for Japan, the French plotted to liberate Indochina themselves. The Japanese then took control and granted Vietnam its "independence." The Vietminh, diehard Vietnamese nationalists led by Ho Chi Minh, rejected collaboration, fought both the French and the Japanese, and appealed to Washington for support
French/British Declaration of War
In February of 1940 Soviet forces initiated an affective attack on Mannerheim Line; by March Stalin's forces accomplished conquering Viipuri in Finland. Soon after, Stalin dictated a peace settlement. However, there was no annex between the Soviet Union and Finland. Instead of creating an aquiantanceship with Finland, Stalin demanded about 25,000 square miles of territory in Finland. In the end the Soviets practically threw away 1.5 million men, 3,00 aircrafts, and suffered 230,000-270,00 dead. A major consequence of all this at the time would be expolsion from The League of Nations.








German Invasion of Poland
Germany invaded Russia on June 22nd of 1941 it was the largest military operation of World War II. Hitler regarded Russia the Non-Aggression Pact between Soviet Russia and Germany, signed on August 23rd of 1939, as a tactic maneuver. In July of 1940, just weeks after Germany's conquest of France, Hitler attacked Russia. On December 18th of 1940 he signed Directive 21 (Known as Operation Barbarossa), the first open order for the invasion of Russia.
Embargo on Raw Materials to Japan
Date: May 10, 1940
On June 5, the Germans struck south, cutting through French forces and reaching the Seine River west of Paris four days later. Much of the French army disintegrated. On June 13, the government declared Paris an open city to spare it air attack, and the next day, German troops took peaceful possession of the French capital. On June 17, the Pétain government opened negotiations with the Germans. Fighting ceased on the battlefields of France on June 25. France was divided into occupied and unoccupied zones, and its army was reduced to 100,000 officers and men. The navy remained under French control but was to be disarmed in French ports. France also had to pay for the German occupation of three-fifths of its territory. Paris was included in the German occupation zone, so the new French government established itself at Vichy, in south-central France. The new Vichy France was frankly totalitarian and collaborationist. Pétain and his advisers believed that Germany had won the war and, at least for the foreseeable future, France would be under German control.

Arming Merchant Ships
On December 7th 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. However the U.S had already begun to upgrade their Navy. On May 7th 1938 Congress passed a Naval expansion bill, which gave the Navy full permission to increase their overall tonnage by 20%. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, along with his many advisers hoped that this step would stop the Japanese from further expansion in the Pacific that might endanger American interests there. Then on June 1940, Congress passes a second Naval expansion bill calling for a two-ocean Navy by 70% increase in overall tonnage. This had been an addition to the 20% years before, causing a total increase of 90% since 1938.
Panay Incident
Date: September 28, 1938
British prime minister Neville Chamberlain delivered this address to the public after he arrived from the Munich Conference. Chamberlain assured the public that British and French concessions to German demands had prevented the outbreak of war in Europe for a generation to come. The Munich Agreement is widely regarded as the height of Western European appeasement to Hitler.
German Annex of Sudetenland
German Invasion of Denmark/ Norway
Date :September 30th, 1938
The Munich was an international conference at which the major powers agreed to the territorial dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. The Czech government in Prague was not particularly concerned. Tthe Czechs had strong military and defensive alliances with France and the Soviet Union. The French government openly said that France would fight if Germany intervened. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain had previously warned that such a conflict would draw in other nations. Chamberlain did not, however, believe that the Czech situation justified war. The Munich Agreement, gave Hitler everything he demanded: evacuation would take place between October 1 and 10 under conditions arranged by an international commission. Early on the morning of October 1, 1938, German troops marched across the frontier. Other nations of central Europe also joined in the division of Czechoslovakia.
Atlantic Charter
The Atlantic Charter meeting was the first face-to-face between U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston L.S Churchill. The meeting was arranged by FDR and took place in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. Roosevelt had the presidential yacht Potomac under cover, with it's story being that was on vacation. Then he secretly transferred to the cruiser Augusta, while Churchill had been traveling across the Atlantic on the battleship Prince of Wales. These two people in command, along with their staff met on these ships starting on August 9th for four days. Some of the things discussed had been the lend-lease aid, common defense issues, and a strong joint policy against the Japanese expansion in the Far East. Afterward on August 14 1941 this information was released to the press and known as the Atlantic Charter.
Adolf Hitler
Military Service: Enlisted in Barvarian Army, Lance Corporal
System of Government: German Nazism
Nazism promoted nationalism, the idea that everyone was an enemies and were all against Germany
Expansion Goals: All of Europe
Hideki Tojo

Military Service: Japanese Army General
System of Government: Japanese Imperialism
Japan became highly nationalistic with some government censorship, condemning capitalism being the root of imperialism
Expansion Goals: China, South Asia, and as much as the Pacific as possible
Joseph Stalin
Soviet Union
Benito Mussolini
Born on July 29th, 1883
in Predappio, Italy

Born: April 20th, 1889 in Baunau am Inn, Austria
December 30th, 1884 in Tokyo
Italian Dictator from 1922-1943
Richardson, Annette, and Tucker, Spencer C. "Benito Mussolini." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.
Date: September 18th, 1931
Japan launched an attack against the Chinese State of Manchuria, aggressively defeating Chinese's creating a occupational rule over the area, removing all important towns in Manchuria from the control of the Chinese authorities, and reorganizing the civil administration . A group of Japanese civil and military officials conceived and carried through the Manchurian independence movement as a solution to the situation in Manchuria making use of the names and actions of certain Chinese individuals and took advantage of certain minorities and native communities that had grievances against the Chinese administration.
"If every age has its own characteristic doctrine, there are a thousand signs which point to Fascism as the characteristic doctrine of our time. For if a doctrine must be a living thing, this is proved by the fact that Fascism has created a living faith; and that this faith is very powerful in the minds of men is demonstrated by those who have suffered and died for it."
"Benito Mussolini: quote on fascism." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.
Clauss, Errol MacGregor. "New Order in East Asia: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.
Neel, Carolyn. "Nazism: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.
Rice, Roger L., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Spanish Civil War: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2014.
Tucker, Spencer C. "German Remilitarization of the Rhineland: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2014.
Tucker, Spencer C. "Italo-Ethiopian War: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Roberts, Priscilla. "Rape of Nanjing: Chinese Civil War and Communist Revolution." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Ent, Uzal W. "Panay Incident." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Carroll, James T., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Cash and Carry: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
"Franklin D. Roosevelt: Quarantine speech (1937)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Springer, Paul J., and Paul G. Pierpaoli Jr. "U.S. Neutrality Acts: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Doerr, Paul William. "Sudetenland: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Barnhill, John. "Anschluss: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Born on December 21, 1879 in the town of Gori in Georgia in the Caucasus as Joseph Dzhugashvili
Anschluss refers to the unification of Austria and Germany through annexation by Adolf Hitler in 1938. The union had been prohibited by treaty at the end of World War I to limit the strength of Germany. Germany's attempt to acquire Austria would be by plebiscite. Although Hitler had expansionist plans in 1937, Germany lacked the resources to rearm at the pace he desired. Hitler wanted Austria, but his generals didn't want to take the risk. Hitler sacked the generals who disagreed with him and replaced them with obsequious ones. Hitler then ordered Austria to join Germany. When Austria demanded a plebiscite, Hitler mobilized. The other European governments did nothing. A Nazi government in Austria, was established and collaborated with Hitler in proclaiming Anschluss. At the time, there was a strong pro-Nazi movement in Austria, and many Austrians celebrated the union. Hitler picked up a good deal of foreign exchange, five Austrian divisions, and factories that turned out more German fighters. The union also gave him a strategic proximity to Czechoslovakia and a common border with Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Italy.
Date: September 1, 1939
World War II began with the German invasion of Poland. The subsequent 36-day campaign triggered a global war that lasted six years. The Poland Campaign was soon overshadowed by the campaigns and battles that followed. World War II started over Polish independence. In accordance with its military pact with the Poles, France was to invade Germany two weeks after a German attack on Poland occurred, thereby forcing the Germans into a two-front war. French forces advanced a maximum of five miles on a narrow front. The French then halted; and when Poland collapsed, they withdrew to the Maginot Line. Britain's Royal Navy did impose a naval blockade on Germany. This blockade was nullified by Germany's nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union, the secret terms of which promised Germany strategic natural resources. Germany could also secure necessary supplies from Italy, and both countries acted as purchasing agents for Berlin abroad. Two weeks into the war, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had not even completed assembling, and London rejected pleas for the Royal Air Force (RAF) bombing raids against Germany that had been agreed to before the war. Following the German victory over Poland and the rejection by Britain and France of his terms for peace on a "forgive and forget" basis, Adolf Hitler prepared to move west

The Neutrality Act of 1937, travel by U.S. citizens on belligerent ships was made illegal. Congress provided that the president would draw up a list of certain strategic raw materials, such as oil, that were to be paid for on delivery and then transported on ships belonging to the belligerent power. These provisions were to last for two years. The provisions of the 1937 act had expired in May 1939, with the consequence that U.S. merchant vessels were free to sail into the war zones, with the possibility that they would be sunk and the United States drawn into war. Under the November 1939 act, cash-and-carry remained in effect. The United States could sell war materials to belligerents provided that they could pay cash for the goods and transport them in their own vessels. The terms of the act were intentionally crafted to favor the Atlantic sea powers that possessed merchant and naval forces to transport the material. To remain within the legal bounds of American neutrality, cash-and-carry was extended to all belligerents, both Axis and Allied, that could meet the specific requirements of the act. Japan was thus able to take advantage of its provisions—until the U.S. government embargoed war goods and froze Japanese assets in 1941, precipitating Tokyo's decision to launch an attack on the United States.

Date: July 10th, 1940
Not until late July did they begin planning for a descent on England, code-named SEA LION. When formal orders were issued for SEA LION, German preparations were half-hearted. The Germans never achieved their goal of driving the RAF from the skies. Ineffective German leadership, intelligence failures resulting in poor targeting decisions, radar and Ultra in the hands of the British, the lack of a strategic bomber on the German side, superior British pilot and aircraft replacement, and the German concentration on London all contributed. November 1, the Germans shifted to night bombing—what Londoners called "the Blitz." Heavy bombing continued into May 1941. Although savage and relentless, night area bombing had no strategic result. The German air offensive had failed, in what was the first serious German military setback of the war. Hitler failed to recognize the need to maintain the pressure on Britain.
Cyr, Arthur I., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Collaboration: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
German Invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland
Date: May 10, 1940
The Allies matched the German invading forces on the ground and outnumbered the Germans in tanks. But the first three French tank divisions did not assemble for training until January 1940, and the majority of French tanks along the eastern frontier were split into isolated packets as infantry support. The Germans dominated the air, a vital factor in their success, and the Allies were sadly deficient in antiaircraft weapons. German airborne forces in the north secured vital bridges and also the Belgian bastion of Eben Emael. The Allies followed the German script by pouring their forces into Belgium. On May 13, German forces to the south crossed the Meuse. For all intents and purposes, the struggle for France was over on May 15 when the Germans penetrated the Meuse defenses. Allied forces in Belgium were now cut off from the bulk of the French forces to the south. As British forces withdrew northward to the coast, Belgium surrendered his armed forces on May 28. This action opened a gap between the BEF left flank and the sea, into which the Germans now poured, threatening to cut off the BEF entirely. For five days, Hitler kept the German armored thrust from the south in place, saving the BEF and probably enabling Britain to continue in the war.

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Jennings, John M. "Hideki Tojo." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
Horky, Roger. "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
Horky, Roger. "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
"Rome-Berlin Axis." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Zabecki, David T. "Poland Campaign: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
"Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (1939)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
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Grilli, David M., and Spencer C. Tucker. "Dunkerque Evacuation: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
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"Neville Chamberlain: Peace For Our Time speech (1938)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014
van Hartesveldt, Fred R., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Munich Conference: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Dobbs, Charles M., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Struggle between Japan and China that was fought for control of China. It began against the backdrop of repeated efforts of Kuomintang (KMT, Nationalist) Party leader Chiang Kai-shek to crush Chinese Communist forces led by Mao Zedong. Japanese efforts to control China flared into all-out war in 1937. As Japanese forces moved onto the north China plain, the situation became more volatile, however, and a confusing three-sided conflict emerged until the Japanese surrender of August 1945.
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Carroll, James T., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Destroyers for Bases Deal: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Storey, Theresa. "Selective Service Act: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
"Lend-Lease Act (1941)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Tucker, Spencer C. "Atlantic Charter: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
He was very active in the Russian Civil War (1918-1921), the Russo-Polish War (1920-1921), and from 1920 to 1923 he was commissar of nationalities. In 1923 he was secondary in command of the Communist Party which helped him gain power in Russia later on. Stalin was personally responsible for the Great Purge trials in the 1930's. Though many people believed his intent had been the communization of Western Europe, his true intentions had only been to restore security to the Soviet Empire.
Tucker, Spencer C. "Joseph Stalin." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Willmott, Hedley P. and Barrett, Michael. "World War II: United Kingdom (Opponent Overview)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 7 Apr. 2014.
Osborne, Eric W. "U.S. Navy: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
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