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Lauren Zhang

on 11 April 2013

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Transcript of WWI

THE FIRST WORLD WAR Background and Causes of WWI The Decline of the Ottoman Empire and How it Led to the Powder Keg of Europe Militarism Moroccan Crisis Nationalism Works Cited Definition -Militarism- The tendency to regard military efficiency as the supreme ideal of the state and to subordinate all other interests to those of the military. The Ottoman Empire German Naval Laws Scramble for Africa -Began in the 1300s and dissolved
in the early 1900s ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") Industrialization Germany Alliances -Germany began reinforcing its Navy to compete with the the navy of Britain
-Germany increased the size of its army to compete with France
-Between 1910-1914 There is an increases in spending in European countries (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Britain, France and Russia) from 289 to 398 Million Euros.
-From 1910-1914 Germany increased its defense spending 73% 1897/1898: 16 battleships built in next three years
-Cost limits
-Altered in 1898 to be 7ships.

1900: Germans sympathized with Boers
- Tirpitz now able to double ships over a 17 year period

1906: Construction of six cruisers because not able to break Entente Cordiale

1908: Believed King Edward VII was going to attack Germany
- Reduced replacement age of battle ship from 25 years to 21 years

1912: Three more battleships to be built - Several alliances in the 19th century
- League of the Three Emperors (1872)
-Isolation of France by Germany
-Friendship between Austria and Germany
- League was broken in 1879
-Dual alliance (1879) Alliances in the 19th century Arms Race Background of the German Naval Laws The Powder Keg of Europe
(Otherwise Known as the Balkans) Weltpolitik -Germany wanted army to compete with GB

-Kaiser Wilhelm II and the Secretary of State for the Grand Navy, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, made five laws

-Kaiser wanted "Place in the Sun" with navy
-gain colonies
-help economy

-Debated over need of small ships or large battle ships

1897- Tirpitz--needed large battleships to cripple Britain so others could finish them off
-Also needed set laws for construction World Political Assassinations 1881- 1914 -A powerful Muslim Empire ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire")
-It reached its peak in the 1600s, covering northern Africa, southwestern Asia, and southeastern Europe ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") 1911 1905-1906 What is nationalism? British Response to the German Naval Laws Algeciras Conference: -January, 1906
-British supported this conference so that France would show strength in the situation
-Most countries sided with France
-Support for France implied a German defeat; led to French power in Morocco
-First time the opposing powers of WWI would be defined in groups -Wilhelm II went to Tangier
- Declared that Germany would help Morocco uphold its independence
-France didn't like it
-Germans demanded a conference to be held at Algeciras, Spain, which the french originally rejected -Germany sent a gunboat to the Moroccan port, Agadir
-Attempt to protect German commercial interests that France had threatened
-Alarmed the British; they thought that it would threaten Gibraltar
-July 21, 1911 - Lloyd George delivered speech at Madison House which warned the Germans
-Agreement made between the two nations - France "gained a free hand in Morocco" and Germany got section of French Congo that connected the German Cameroons and the Congo River Second League and Triple Alliance -Second League of the Three Emperors (1881)
- Russia friendship
- Triple Alliance (1882)
-Collapse of the Second League (1887) 20th Century Alliances Purpose of an Alliances -The main purpose of an alliance was so politicians could have a sense of balance throughout countries. -British began to worry after Second Naval Law

-British built 6 new battleships

-Cut Anglo-Japanese and formed Entente Coridale with French -"They hoped that if no group became stronger than the others then peace would be maintained" (Boscoe 7). -This did not work however, when one country felt overly threatened they would attack taking all their allies with them. -Alliances also helped nations feel protected from threats as well. If they know they have other nations to back them up during warfare they can be less worried. Triple Entente (Allies) -Compromised of Britain, France and Russia, and later on United States, Japan, Serbia and Belgium. -Britain sided with France because of how close the countries are geographically located. -Britain decided they needed to Allie themselves up after the Boer War because their "image" was not looking great. -Britain could not ally themselves with Germany because this was the rivalry that caused the alliances to be an underlying cause to the Great War. Triple Alliance (Central Powers) -Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Italy later decided to leave the alliance when the war started because the deal was void when Germany attacked first. -Germany and Britain were two large powers dominating the rest. Britain however had an outstanding navy unmatched by any country. Germany decided they would build the same navy. This is why Britain decided to arm themselves with other countries as protection. This made Germany feel threatened so they armed themselves. From there tension between the alliances was present, and one of the reasons the war happened. Nationalism: political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount, it is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state. -It reached its cultural peak under Sultan Suleyman's reign, 1494-1566 ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") List of Assassinations -Suleyman transformed the army, added a lot of land to the Empire, and gave the capital city, Istanbul, many buildings, aqueducts, and schools ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") Colonial Africa -1881- US President James Garfield- shot
-1881- Czar Alexander II of Russia- bomb, by revolutionists French Alliance -French and Russian alliance (1894)
-Germany and Britain alliance failed
-Alliance with Britain (1901)
- Triple Entente (1907) Amplifier Overview -Alliances

-Militarism Industrialization is essentially a part of Militarism , Imperialism and
Nationalism. WWI Example The Decline of the
Ottoman Empire the large-scale introduction of manufacturing, advanced technical enterprises, and other productive economic activity into an area, society, country, etc. -German Empire

-Serbia Definition: -1894- French President Sadi Carnot- stabbed by Italian anarchist
-1897- Spanish Prime Minister Cánovas del Castillo- shot by Italian anarchist
-1898- Empress Elizabeth of Austria- stabbed by Italian anarchist -Industrialization fueled the production of the new technologically advanced weapons. -World policy
- Led by Kaiser Wilhelm II
-Replaced Realpolitik
-"Germany had great tasks to
accomplish outside old Europe."
-Primarily Naval -In the late 1800s, Slavs in the Balkans were typically ruled by the Turks, and Russia felt sympathy for them, especially since they shared the same religion and were both Slavs (Fleming 56) -Industrialization causes a need for markets and raw goods resulting in Imperialism, competition for land and resources. -The Hapsburgs, from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, did not want a strong Balkan state, as they feared it would cause Slavs in their own country to move to that State (Fleming 56) -1900- King Umberto I of Italy- led Italy into Triple Alliance- shot by an anarchist
-1901- US President William McKinley- shot by anarchist Tensions United States -The Women's Work Force had a great influence on the industry in the United States. -1903- King Alexander I of Serbia- planned assassination by the Black Hand
-1914- Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie- shot member of the Black Hand, spark of World War I Importance of Assassinations The importance of these assassinations to the war is that they led some nations to join sides. Many of the leaders were assassinated by Italian anarchists, this made these nations dislike the Italians and their allies. Because of the alliances, nations such as France would join the war against Italy and their allies. This also led to the involvement of England. The assassinations caused nationalism for a country and this was a main cause for the war. The assassinations created tension between countries and made decisions easier to join a war against a nation. Effects -The increased spending and military control of the people led to the belief war was coming

-Secret meetings between countries began to take place.( For example, The British and French naval authorities decided that the French should be stationed in the Mediterranean, while the British controlled in the North Sea

-By 1914 the European forces were ready for war by 1914 http://historiageneral.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/primera-guerra-mundial.jpg Assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand On July 28, 1914, Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrillo Princip. Princip shot Ferdinand and his wife Sophie at point blank range while driving through Sarajevo on a formal visit. Princip was a member of the Serbian terrorist group, the Black Hand. The assassination gave Austria-Hungary a reason to take military action against Serbia. This also caused other nations that were allied with Austria-Hungary and Serbia to join in the war. -Trade and investments
-Raw materials: Cotton, copper, tin,
-Militarism: Demonstration of power and strategic purposes Credits Slide Master Lauren Zhang Slide Servants Michael Wang
Brendan Downey
Max Borwick
Isabela Bicalho
Tristan Wali Lee Mowery
Hannah Shea
Ann Stanton
Abby Moyer
Bailey Foley -1,600,000 women were employed from 1914 until 1918 -Types of Employment: Government departments, public transport, the post office, as clerks in business, as land workers and in factories In the dangerous munitions factories alone, there were 950,000 women employed by Armistice Day "(as compared to 700,000 in Germany)." -Industrialism was fueled by Nationalism Facts -The empire began to lose a lot of its land, particularly to Europe ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") -Began when the empire gave Russia the Black Sea in 1792 ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") -European countries began to have more and more influence in the empire, such as when Britain built the Suez Canal and France bankrolled many railroads ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") http://www.travellinkturkey.com/ottoman_empire.html Ottoman Empire,17th Century -The First World War improved the economy of participating countries due to an increase in production

-The rate of of developing advances in technology, such as in: transportation, communication, weapons and defense, occurred due to an increase in rate of production

-Industrialization was one of the main reasons there was so much bloodshed during World War I

- If there had been the new weapons technology, stronger naval forces, fully automatic weapons, and the aerial warfare without their mass production (industrialization), the impact would have been less significant - WWI gave the world a worrisome insight on future warfare http://da4ottomanempire.weebly.com/ottoman-empires-imperialism.html Ottoman Empire, 1914 -In the 1870s, the Slavic people in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, and Bulgaria rebelled against the Ottoman Empire; these countries would form the area known as the Balkans ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/la/smokestack2.jpg http://www.picturehistory.com/images/products/0/7/6/prod_7631.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Cp1A7djBbq4/T-RN0tS-srI/AAAAAAAAAFE/kjO4hwTIh4I/s1600/springworleg03.jpg -A lot of ethnic tensions in the Balkans (Henig 4) -Decline began towards the end of Sulyeman's
reign ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") -In the 1910s, Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bulgaria fought to free other provinces from the empire ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") -By 1919, all that remained of the empire was Turkey, and the empire came to an end
in 1922 ("Decline of the Ottoman Empire") -Slavs in Serbia wanted union with Bosnia, which had been taken over by the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Henig 19) -Animosity between Serbia and
Austria-Hungary grew (Henig 19) How this Led to World War I -Animosity between Serbia and Austria-Hungary
led to the assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand, which helped to spark World War I -Tensions between Austria-Hungary and Russia rose,
and these two countries would fight on opposite
sides of the war Images "Agadir Crisis, 1911." The Great War, 1914-1918 Origins and Causes. Mount Holyoke College, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
Bosco, Peter I., and John Bowman. World War I. New York: Facts on File, 1991. Print.
"Britannica Online Encyclopedia."Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
Bruun, Geoffrey. Nineteenth-century European civilization, 1815-1914. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960. Print.
"Decline of the Ottoman Empire." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: War. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Student Resources In Context. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.
Duffy, Michael. "A Multimedia History of World War One." First World War.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2013.
Duffy, Michael. "Archduke Franz Ferdinand." First World War.com. N.p., 22 July 2009. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
Etty, John. "Serbian Nationalism and the Great War: John Etty Questions Whether Serb Nationalism Was an Irresistible Force That Helped Unleash the First World War ." History Review,No. 63. March 2009. Questia. Web. 10 April, 2013.
Fleming, D. F. The Origins and Legacies of World War I. Garden City: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1968. Print.Gilbert, Felix, and David Clay Large. "The Crisis of 1905-1914." The End of the European Era: 1890 to the Present. New York [u.a.: Norton, 2002. 107-09. Print.
Herron, David. "Causes of World War I." Causes Of WW1. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2013.
Hewitson, Mark. Germany and the Causes of the First World War. Oxford, UK: Berg, 2004. Print.
"Industrialization." Dictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013."Militarism." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2013
Murray, Williamson, and Allan R. Millett. A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War. Cambridge: Beknap Harvard, 2000. Questia School. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.
"Nationalism". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Questia Web. 10 April, 2013.
Poon, HW. "World War I - alliance system." Funfront.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
"Road to WWI." Google Books. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
Snyder, Louis L. The Blood and Iron Chancellor: A Documentary- Biography of Otto von Bismarck (Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1967), 375-"378, Print.World War I." - Militarism. TheCorner.org, 2007. Web. 6 Apr. 2013.
"This Day in History."History.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. - Nationalism also played a large role in WWI - Nationalism was strongly tied to industrialization, imperialism, German Naval Laws, and militarism - Nationalism, industrialization, imperialism, German Naval Laws, and militarism led to aggressive behavior and changing alliances - There were also ethnic tensions specific to the Balkans region "Ottoman Empire, 1914." Photograph. DA4 Ottoman Empire - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
"The Zenith of the Ottoman Empire." Photograph. Travel Link. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
"WWIchartX.” Photograph. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. German Naval Laws
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