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Classroom Assessment & Grading that Work
Transcript of Classroom Assessment & Grading that Work
by Robert J. Marzano http://www.ou.edu/cls/brock/images/Marzano.jpg Who is Robert Marzano?
-CEO of Marzano Research Laboratory
-received his PhD from University of Washington Some of his works include:
District Leadership that Works, The Art of Science
of Teaching, Classroom Instruction that Works, Classroom
Assessment and Grading that Work, and Designing and Teaching Learning Goals and Objectives. Bibliography
Marzano, Robert J. Classroom Assessment & Grading that Work. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2006. Print.
Robert Marzano on his career in research: What is this book about? -Chapters 1-3 Highlights- Provide students with positive feedback and make sure it's valid. Formative assessments provide good feedback. Studies prove the more
assessments a student has,
the higher their test scores. There is far too much content for classroom teachers to teach! If we were to cover all content, we would need 71% more instructional time! US math books cover 175% more topics
than German texts and 350% more than Japan.
German and Japanese students
significantly outperform US students in math. Unpacking benchmarks - when this was done on 241 benchmarks, 741 dimensions were actually found! Why the point system is not reliable - different levels of questions are scored the same, teachers may weigh the questions differently, or a student may miss problems if they're tired, skip a question, etc. Teachers need to take a deeper look at
their assessment methods. -Chapters 4-5 Highlights- -Chapters 6-7 Highlights- What was our reaction to this text?
-Inadequate We recommend that classroom teachers take the time to read this book. There is so much interesting information and helpful tips that would be beneficial for you to use in your classroom. Questions? Comments? Designing a Formative Assessment System
First, one must determine how many measurement
topics will be addressed and how many will
be administered during a grading period. Benchmarks coupled with
formative assessment can be
powerful. Ideal Assessments include:
Type I, Type II and Type III items or tasks. Type I-basic details
Type II-more complex
Type III-inferences or applications Subject Matter Knowledge can be divided into three types:
phsychomotor procedures Within these three types of
subject matter knowledge teachers can do
type I, type II and type III assessments. Assessment items can
be designed in five formats:
forced choice (multiple choice, fill in the blank, matching, etc.)
short written response
oral reports and responses
demonstrations and performances Assessments that Encourage Learning Effective formative assessments
all students to improve. Three techniques to accomplish
students track their own progress
students engage in different forms of self reflection
estimating students' true score on formative assessments What is a true score?
The score that represents the student's true level of understanding or skill regarding the topic being measured. (p.36) Assessing Life Skills via teacher observation class participation
teamwork Focus on Learning at the end of the Grading Period
Problem with averaging students' scores is that it assumes that no learning has occurred between assessments. Diagnostic Learning Logs:
students respond to 4 questions that allows them to reflect on their involvement and understanding of classroom tasks. Look for patterns that will form the basis for planning future interactions with the whole class, groups of students, and individuals.
Final Scores and Grades There are various techniques for computing final scores for topics and translating these to scores and grades Computer Software Software should allow teachers
to easily enter multiple topic scores for an assessment It should provide for the most accurate estimate of a student's final score for each topic Should provide graphs depicting student progress Report Cards and the Future of Standards-based or Topic-Based Schooling Overall scores are deficient because they do not provide the detail necessary to enhance learning If a school wants to begin to change, they may want to start with a report card that provides an overall grade and the detailed information. How do we begin to transform the Culture of the District or School? Implement in Three Phases Phase I - Have a vanguard team of teachers experiment with topic-based assessment and record keeping Phase II - Identify the measurement topics that will be used throughout the district or school, the software that will keeptrack of student performance on the topics, and the grading system that will be used Phase III - Implement the system in stages For more in depth notes of this book,
please visit our wiki at:
Formative assessments - occur while knowledge is being learned
Summative assessments - occur at the end of learning Created by: Shannon Williamson,
Tamara Presnell, and Leigh Hopkins