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American West: Development of the Plains

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Michael Brodie

on 8 January 2018

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Transcript of American West: Development of the Plains

The Making of America, 1789-1900
Settlement and Conflict on the Plains, 1861-1877

TASK: Cattle Debate
Why was the transcontinental railroad built?
What was the impact of the Cattle Trails?
What caused the rise and fall of the Goodnight-Loving Trail?
Why was Native American life destroyed?
TASK: Railroad Card Sort
Step 1: Separate the cards into:
* Reasons why the government built railroads.
* Reasons why companies built railroads.

Step 2: Do you think the government and the railroad companies wanted to build the railways for the same reasons?
Learning Objectives
Know - The problems faced when building the ranscontinetal railroad.

Understand - Why the transcontintental railroad was built.

Concept - Causation

Skills - Inference, categorisation and
Mountain Man
Mormon Settler
Learning Outcomes
TASK: Railroad Problems
Why this was significant
Use pp.49-50 (yellow book) to complete the table.
What can we infer from this source?
What was the most important reason for building the transcontinental railroad?
Manifest Destiny
Law and Order
In 1862, the US Congress passed the Pacific Railways Act - This set up two companies: The Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company.

The two companies began laying railroad from Omaha, Nebraska in the east and Sacramento, Claifornia in the West.

The two companies met in Promontory Point, Utah on 10 May 1869.

Makes an inference from a primary source.
Explains the reasons why the transcontinental railroad was built.
Analyses the problems faced when building the transcontinental railroad.
What were the consequences of the transcontinental railroad?
Learning Objectives
Know - The different consequences of the transcontinental railroad.

Understand - How different groups were affected in different ways.

Concept - Consequence

Skills - Group work, categorising consequences.
Mountain Man
Mormon Settler
Learning Outcomes
TASK: Railroad Role Play
Your task is to build the transcontinental railroad.

You will be competing against each other. Also, you will get more money for the more track completed.

The Union Pacific will be starting from Omaha, Iowa and the Central Pacific from Sacramento, California.

You mut create rails which are exactly 5 cm by 10 cm and there must be 4 sleepers across each piece of rail. The Central Pacific Team will have to make their way through the Sierra Nevada mountains..

There are two government agents who will act as quality control and will reject any sub-standard work.
TASK: Mind Map
Wind pumps and drills and mechanical reapers could be brought to the Plains by rail.
Consequences of railroads on farmers
Answer Q 1-2 on p. 51 (yellow book).
The Union Pacific railroad has been attacked by Native American worried about the threat to their hunting grounds. Stop working for 1 minute!
The Central Pacific Railroad has solved a labour shortage by employing Chinese migrants. Gain a team member.
A huge number of workers die due to the terrible weather conditions, dangerous work and poor sanitation. Lose a worker each.
Hot Question
What was the most significant consequence of the railroads and why?
What can we infer from these sources?
In 1884 there were around 325 wild bison left in the United States – including 25 in Yellowstone. Before the Europeans arrived in New World, there were more than 50 million bison in North America.

Their bones were used for fertiliser.
Learning Objectives
Know - The consequences of the development of the railroads on Native Americans.

Understand - The relative importance of these different consequences.

Concept - Consequence.

Skills - Source inference, evaluation and exam practice.
Mountain Man
Mormon Settler
Learning Outcomes
Makes an inference from a primary source.
Explains the consequences of railroad development on Native Americans.
Creates a response to a consequence question.
The advantages from the development of the railroads outweigh the negatives.
STARTER: Can you work out the link?
Learning Objectives
Know - What the Goodnight-Loving Trail was.

Understand - Why the Goodnight Loving Trail began and ended.

Concept - Causation.

Skills - Making hypotheses, judgement and evaluation.
Mountain Man
Mormon Settler
Learning Outcomes
TASK: The Rise of the Goodnight Loving Trail
1. Explain what the Goodnight-Loving Trail was. Make sure that you use specific detail (facts and figures).

2. Why was the Goodnight-Loving Trail important in the development of the cattle industry? Think about the solutions it gave to some problems with rearing and selling cattle.

TASK: The fall of the Goodnight-Loving Trail
Pyramid of Problems:
Sort the problems into a pyramid with the most significant problem at the top.
Makes a link between different factors to make a hypothesis about the cattle industry.
Explains the Goodnight-Loving Trail was and why it was important.
Evaluates the reasons why the Goodnight-Trail and other cattle trails ceased to be used.
Who was most significant in the development in the development of the cattle industry?
John Iliff
Charles Goodnight & Oliver Loving
Learning Objectives
Know - What happened to the cattle industry over time.

Understand - Why the open range approach to the cattle industry ended.

Concept - Causation.

Skills - Evidence gathering and group discussion
Mountain Man
Mormon Settler
Learning Outcomes
Why did the open range end?
TASK: End of the Open Range
Reasons or the end of the Open Range
Use specific detail!!
TASK: Cattle Industry Video Review
Could the boom and bust of the cattle industry have been avoided?
TIP - How could the problems have been avoided?
Cattle Industry Dingbats
Consolidates knowledge on the cattle industry.
Creates solutions to the problems faced by the open range cattle industry.
Explains the reasons for the collapse of the open range cattle industry.
TASK: Consequences of Cattle
Extension - Go back to your map of America and plot the cattle trails.
Learning Objectives
- Consequences of the development of the cattle trails.

- The significance of these developments.

- Consequence and Significance.

- Comprehension, source analysis and evaluation.
Learning Outcomes
Sitting Bull
Red Cloud
Little Crow
Infers the chain of causation of the cattle trails in the US
Explains the consequence of the cattle industry.
TASK: Cattle Trails
STEP 1: Complete the questions silently, using pp. 66-67:
1. What did Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving do in 1866?
2. Who set up the town of Abilene and how did he do it?
3.What were the cow towns like?
4. How and why did cow towns change in the 1870s?
5. What was the life of the average cowboy like?
6. How did John Iliff revolutionise the cattle industry
7. What was an 'open range'?
8. What were the consequences of the open range?

STEP 2: What can the picture on p. 67 tell us about the cattle industry? Use the source and your own knowledge to support your answer (7 Marks)
*State your answer.
*Mention strengths from content and/or provenance (if relevant)
* Mention some limitations on the content/provenance (what is missing?)
Evaluates the significance of key individuals in the cattle industry.
How many problems faced by Homesteaders can you identify.
TASK: Homesteader Solutions
How did homesteaders survive and thrive on the plains?
What was more important in the settlement of the Plains?
Government Action
Learning Objectives
- The reasons why the Plains were settled.

- How Homesteaders were able to survive on the Plains.

- Causation.

- Source analysis and gathering evidence.
Learning Outcomes
Sitting Bull
Red Cloud
Little Crow
TASK: Causes of Settlement
- Read the sheet and answer the questions. Make sure that you include specific detail.

- How useful is source A for a historian investigating the reasons behind settlement of the Plains?
Infers the problems experiences by Homesteaders.
Explains why the Plains were settled.
Explains how Homesteaders were able to survive and thrive on the Plains.
STEP 1: Complete the table using pp.70-71.
STEP 2: Write a clear and organised summary which explains the reasons why homesteaders survived on the Plains (9 Marks)
Include: Accommodation, Food and Warmth
Why was there so much conflict on the Plains?
CONTENT: Little Crow's War (1861-1862)
CONTENT: Reasons for Conflict on the Plains
Ecological Reasons
- There was intense competition between different tribes for resources on the Plains and the growing number of white settlers made this worse - By 1860, there was competition for grassland and water.

Hardening Attitudes -
Theories of race supported the idea that whites were superior to other groups and the idea that Indians should lose their lands was viewed as natural. The US Government came under increasing pressure to to sign treaties which concentrated Native Americans on smaller and smaller reservations - Warriors promised they would not bow to pressure from white settlers and from the 1850s onwards these warrior societies drew larger followings and tensions grew.

Guns and Fear -
Some historians believe gun ownership, coupled with increasing fear was important - The Civil War led to a massive increase in gun ownership and guns were used more and more to solve conflict.
* By 1861 the Santee Sioux had been force to give up 28 million acres of land in exchange for a small reservation in Minnesota.

*In 1862, and lack of meat and corn meant they were starving but the government refused to gives supplies.

*Chief Little Crow came to negotiate but was told 'let them eat grass or their own dung.'

*In response, the Sioux attacked farms, town and army forts and around 500 settlers were killed.

*Little Crow was eventually surrounded and killed.

*After the fighting, 300 Santee Sioux were put on trial and sentenced to death on little evidence. President Lincoln intervened and only 38 were executed.

* The Santee Sioux were forced onto a reservation in Dakota.
CONTENT: The Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
*Gold was discovered in Pike's Peak, Colorado in 1858.
*This meant that many settlers came onto the lands of the Cheyenne and the Arapaho.
*In 1861, the US Government forced the tribes onto a small reservation in Sand Creek, Eastern Colorado.
*By 1864, the Indians were unable to produce enough food on the small reservation and warriors from the tribes began to hunt outside of it.
* These warriors also began to attack white settlements and President Lincoln gave permission to the Governor of Colorado to raise an army to fight the Indian threat.
* The Third Colorado Volunteers, led by John Chivington became known as the 'Bloodless Third' because they saw no action.
*Cheyenne leader, Black Kettle, came to negotiate with the government and camped in Sand Creek.
*However, on 13 November 1864 a white settler ws killed by a Cheyenne warrior and desperate to respond the Bloodless Third attacked the Cheyenne camp.
* They attacked on 29 November and 105 women and children and 28 men were killed.
*The Indians' scalps and genitals were cut off and taken as trophies.
*After a government investigation of events Chivington was forced to resign.
CONTENT: Red Cloud's War (1865-1868)
*In 1862, discovery of gold in Montana led to warfare between the Lakota Sioux and the US army.
*The Bozeman Trail, which led to the mining area, went through Sioux territory which broke the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851.
*The Sioux, led by Red Cloud began to attack the settlers on the trail.
*In 1866, the government called for a meeting at Fort Laramie to negotiate a treaty to protect settlers but Red Cloud refused to sign.
*The US began building forts and this was a step too far for Red Cloud.
*In 1866, Red Cloud, alongside other Lakota leaders like Crazy Horse, attacked a number of forts.
*In one case Captain Fetterman and 80 men were lured out of Fort Kearney and killed, scalped and mutilated.
*Red Cloud continued to have victories in 1867 and 1868.
*The US Government was forced to sign the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty -this granted a vast amount of land, including the Black Hills of Dakota to the Sioux and guaranteed that troops would not enter their land without permission.
*After the treaty, control of the conflict was handed over to General Sherman and Sheridan, who wanted a tough approach to the Indian issue.
CONTENT: The Great Sioux War (1875-1877)
- In 1874 rumours circulated of a gold strike in Black Hills of Dakota - General George Armstrong Custer was despatched and confirmed the claims. By 1875, thousands of miners had arrived.

- The US Government tried to buy the land around the Black Hills for $6 million. Red Cloud agreed but Sitting Bull and others refused - President Grant demanded that Indians should return to their reservation by the end of 1876 but many did not.

- Sitting Bull had a vision that the Sioux would win a great victory and on 6 June 1876 they destroyed a camp on the Rosebud River before setting up their own camp on the bank of the Little Bighorn River.

- On the 6 June a number of Cheyenne and Sioux, led by Crazy Horse attacked and defeated the army of General Crook, who was forced to retreat.
TASK: The Battle of Little Bighorn
CONTEXT: The Transcontinental Railway
* In 1853 the US Government had surveyed the possibility of creating a railway and in 1862, Lincoln had passed the Pacific Railroad Act which provided government money to build it. It also offered the railroad companies free land either side of the track which could be sold to settlers. This worked out as 6400 acres per mile.
* Two companies the Union Pacific Company (who built from the east) and Central Pacific Railroad Company (who built from the west)
* The transcontinental railway was completed in 1869.

*Thousands of labourers were used to build the track - including tunnelling through the Sierra Nevada - many died of illness and in accidents.
*Flood of homesteaders settling on the plains.
*Helped destroy Native American culture - divided the lands where the Indians had hunted buffalo, cattle towns and homesteads were created on their land and encouraged hunters to come and hunt buffalo, n which Native Americans depended.
TASK: Destruction of Native American Culture
Use pp. 83-85 to answer the following:

1. Give 3 reasons other than defeat in wars and the destruction of the buffalo why the Indians were defeated:
2. How did the US government split up the tribes?
3. How did the US government try to make the Native Americans become farmers?
4. Explain which of the factors in the yellow box on p.84 would have disrupted Native American culture most?
5. What were the positive impacts of the Friend of the Indian group? 3 impacts.
6. What were the negative impacts of the Friend of the Indian group?
7. What was the Ghost Dance and how was it viewed by Native Americans?
8. What happened to Sitting Bull and why?
9. What happened at the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1891?
HOT Questions
In what ways is the actions of the government between towards Native Americans in the 1870s and 1890s similar to that of the 1820s?

How similar are the actions of the US Government here to the actions of the Nazis towards racial opponents?
TASK: 9 Mark Summary View and Improve
Success Criteria for a 9 mark summary question:
*3 fully developed and supported points.
*Structured in paragraphs.
*Rank factors in order of importance.
*Demonstrate awareness of a historical concept - causation, change and continuity, similarity and difference or consequence.

Steps 1:
*Read the 9/9 of 9 response and make quick notes.
* I will remove the 9/9 response after 5 minutes.

Step 2:
*Improve the 5/9 response.
TIP - Think about what you have seen and how you can
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