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Chinese History Storybook

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by

Janice Kim

on 3 December 2012

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Transcript of Chinese History Storybook

Janice Kim Chinese Civil War Story 1. Background of China Mandate of Heaven and Confucianism Chiang established his government in Nanjing after the massacre in Shanghai
Capital: Nanjing
Chiang was obsessed with unifying China
Power-hungered Chiang Kai Shek
got support from key warlords
used ruthless methods and family connections to get financial support
GMD had consolidated its power Nanjing Government Mandate of Heaven
the right rule is granted by heaven
justification of an Emperor's rule
Confucius: His beliefs and principles led China until the 20th century
Confucianism focused on ethical and philosophical system Many books were published
Highly valued education systems:
Civil Service System was an exam to employ people who had competitive knowledge and merits
Postal System (well-organized)
Valuable goods and Important part in trading with the West
tea, silk, spices, gun powders Achievements Manchus took over power and started the Qing Dynasty
1600s - 1700s flourished
population doubled
Great Emperors: Kangxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong
military expeditions
Queue: Chinese men shaved the front of their heads and wore a ponytail
showed loyalty and submission to Qing Qing Dynasty Qing's Decline (1) Opium War
humiliation of Qing
clear demonstration of how weak China had become
Shanghai was captured
Nanjing was threatened
satisfied British terms
Treaty of Tianjin
established Chinese foreign ministry
Qing loses sovereignty over Vietnam and Korea Internal Crisis
Economic crisis
out-flow of silver from China --> serious silver shortage and damaged internal commerce
Social damage
corruption on the part of officials
bribes and skimming
Rebellions
Taiping Rebellion
Powers divided among various commanders Qing's Decline (2) Sun Yat Sen and Yuan Shikai After the decline of Qing Dynasty Sun Yat Sen claimed leadership in China
Sun Yat Sen recognized the importance of military power so he assigned Yuan Shikai as the president Yuan Shikai becomes the military leader of China
Military regime begins
His death leads to the end of warlords Young Chinese students like Mao Zedong fermented European ideas
The New Youth was founded upon Chen Duxiu
The New Youth, a literary journal, attempted to embody the hopes of transforming Chinese society and culture and completely destroy traditional ways.
New Culture Movement China's New Youth 2. China in 1912-1927 The 1919 Paris Peace Conference granted Japan German province of Shandong
China was humiliated with this decision
This led to massive student protest throughout China, leading up to the May 4th movement
It propagated democracy, nationalism, and the people's welfare as a foundation to the new Chinese society May 4th Movement After the May 4th Movement, Sun Yat-Sen attempted to revive the Nationalist party with his assistants out of the Revolutionary Alliance
Run the government under Three Principles
nationalism
democracy
people's welfare
Sun Yat-Sen wanted to unify China
He recognized the need for military power Guomindang (GMD) In 1915, Yuan Shikai accepted the Twenty One Demands, proposed by Japan that would have stripped China of a significant degree of sovereignty
This delegitimized Shikai's leadership and failed to become a constitutional president
He died in 1916 -
marks the beginning of the era of warlords Twenty One Demands
and Yuan Shikai Young Chinese praised the Bolsheviks and were seeking transformation in their country
With the support of Comintern (Communist International) the CCP was founded
Chen Duxiu was chosen as the first Secretary-general of the party
led the May 4th movement
interested in Marxism
Yet, the CCP did not have strong power and the Soviets advised the CCP to cooperate with the GMD Chinese Communist Party The USSR financially and politically supported the CCP through Comintern
The CCP was too small to work alone; needed support from the KMT
The USSR attempted to increase its power within the KMT
It sent advisers so that the CCP could be shaped as the Soviets
The USSR also wanted the CCP to place itself under the umbrella of the KMT The Role of USSR Mikhail Borodin;
one of the advisers The Soviets insisted the CCP to deal with the warlords by giving money
Chiang Kai Shek was in charge of Whampoa and the training of the Nationalist Party army
Soviet advisers also in control
Zhou Enlai was in charge of propaganda
Demonstrated how Soviet was attempting to create GMD as their communist puppet Whampoa Military Academy Following Sun's death, Chiang campaigned to unify China and increase the influence of his party northwards
Used variety of methods such as military victory, Communist propaganda, bribery, and alliance with the warlords
Mao was involved in the Peasant Movement Training Institute
Increasing suspicion of Chiang to the Communist influence and thus trying to eliminate it Northern Expedition Early in 1927, the leftist of GMD and the communists carried out a series of attacks in Shanghai
With the assistance from the Green Gang, a notorious gangster in the city, Chiang arrested and killed Communist supporters
Chiang seemed like to appear as a gangster
The KMT and the CCP ended the United Front
The Communist advisers left the country Shanghai Massacre 3. Civil War 1927-1937 Following the Shanghai Massacre, Communists attempted several uprisings at Nanchang and Guangzhou
Mao was involved in the Peasant Harvest Uprising movement in Human Province
After the failure of the Uprising, Mao was forced to flee to the Jinggang Mountains in the Jiangxi Province
The Chinese Soviet Republic was established at Jiangxi Province in the early 1930s
Mao was in charge of political organization and indoctrination
Zhu De was in charge of the military
Mao creates the Red Army (PLA)
adapted guerrilla warfare to fight the Nationalist Chinese Soviet Republic A form of irregular warfare using military tactics such as ambushes, sabotage, and raids
Characteristics
mobility and surprise
constant harassment to keep the enemy off balance
rapid retreats to avoid battle with superior forces
Why did Mao choose this type of strategy?
the peasants were poor and was no match to Chiang's rich and professional soldiers
Sudden attacks were necessary
Mao got the support by working with the peasants and offering land redistribution and more revolution Guerrilla Warfare The Communists kept campaigned its power by promising benefits for the peasants such as land reform and the implementation of greater rights for women
However, the CCP also used violence and terror to maintain their superior power
Mao considered that there would be GMD spies, Paranoia
During the AB League Incident, the Communists killed and terrorized thousands in Jiangxi, including their own members
It was a purge of GMD spies Red Terror Chiang's government attempted to reform and modernize China
Positive development: transportation improvements, urban industrial development, reduction in foreign concessions, increase in number of public schools, attempted to recognize local areas and establish bureaus for education
Revisionist historian Jay Taylor credits Chaing's reform to be somehow positive in this regard
However, most of these changes did not affect most of the people in China Chiang's Reform In order to fight corruption and counter the Communist appeal, Chiang and his wife introduced the New Life Movement
A campaign to restore Confucian principles and traditional values
To some extent, it was also a rejection of western individualism
However, it only reached a limited number of people
Failed to arouse public appeal New Life Movement To dislodge the Communist and Mao from Jiangxi, the GMD launched a serious military operation and encircled the area
The first four of these failed
The first couple of attempts actually strengthen the CCP because of the Red Army's tactics Encirclement Campaigns The Bureau of Militray Statistics operated the Secret Police, terrorizing and assassinating the party's opponents
Blue Shirts Society, made up of Whampoa graduates, also attempted to silence the opponents
Both eventually failed to achieve its aim GMD Repression of Opponents The GMD succeeded in its fifth encirclement with the assistance of Germany
Mao temporarily loses control of Chinese Soviet Republic
CCP decides to leave Jiangxi to Yanan
The CCP undertakes a long march to Yanan
The CCP, though was able to pass areas controlled by the warlords or the Nationalist Army, lost most of the marchers along the way
The Long March became a myth among the CCP history and allowed the party to revitalize
Mao also regained power The Long
March During the Zunyi Conference, Mao regains power over the CCP and Otto Braun, German communist brought by Comintern who is supported by the 28 Bolsheviks, and Bo Gu
Zhou Enlai supported Mao which had a strong impact on Mao's success
The Zunyi Conference was a starting point in which the role of Comintern and the USSR upon the CCP gradually decreases Zunyi Conference In 1931, a railroad in Manchuria blew up and Japan blamed China for this incident. The Japanese, therefore, invaded Manchuria which is called the Manchurian crisis. Japan did this to get raw materials from China.
In 1932, Japan attacks and heavily damages Shanghai which is known as the January 28 Incident.
The Treaty of Tanggu, in 1933, accepted Japan to stay in Manchuria which became a demilitarized zone.
Chiang Kai Shek was kidnapped, known as the Xi'an Incident, and had to agree to collaborate with the CCP to fight their common enemy, Japan Japanese Threat Marco Polo Bridge Incident
1937 War with Japan 1937-1945 A clash between Japanese soldiers on a night exercise and Chinese troops around a famous bridge 10miles away from Beijing Marked the beginning of numerous conflicts yet to come (total war)
China given ultimatum and forced to withdraw from Beijing
Japan sought this as an opportunity to seize control of China After the defeat at Shanghai, Chinese also failed to defend their positions at Wuxi (road to Nanjing) This enabled the Japanese troops entered Nanjing
Japanese soldiers practiced vile, perverted torture on the inhabitants of Nanjing
For 7 weeks, Japanese tortured, killed, raped, and buried around 300,000 Chinese. Rape of Nanjing 1937-1938 Stalin assisted Chiang by sending Soviet planes to help the nationalist forces
Even with Soviet assistance, Japanese still continued to advance
Chiang withdrew from the Wuhan and moved his capital to Chongqing Retreat to Chongqing First ideological mass movement initiated by the CCP
Mao's rivals like Wang Ming were pressured to confess past mistakes and Mao's thoughts became central for right-thinking party members
Mao's Paramount role of CCP was also involved
Mao was declared as the Chairman of the whole party in 1945 with the development of personality cult Rectification Campaign
- Rise of Mao Mao's new idea at a conference in Wayabu - even bourgeoisie should be allowed to join in the struggle for a new China and to defeat Japan - enriched the leverage of CCP
Mao's policies gained the support from masses
The gentry and landlord extermination also were supported
His policies also fought for corruption and promoted literacy
The growing popularity enabled village life to strengthen and promote rural economy Expansion of the CCP
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