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Transcript of Music Therapy
Cost and Availability
American Cancer Society, Inc. (2013, October 23). http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/mindbodyandspirit/music-therapy
American Music Therapy Association (2013, October 23) http://www.musictherapy.org
Comeaux, T. & Steele-Moses, S. (2013). The Effect of Complementary Music Therapy on the Patient's Postoperative State of Anxiety, Pain Control, and Environmentmental Noise Satisfaction. Med Surg Nursing. 22(5), 313-318.
Mahon, E. M., & Mahon, S. M. (2011). Music Therapy: A Valuable Adjunct in the Oncology Setting. Clinical Journal Of Oncology Nursing, 15(4), 353-356
Pellitteri, J. (2000). Music Therapy in the Special Education Setting. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 11(3&4), 379-391
Alle Hunter & Nicolette Tavares
History of Music Therapy
"The idea of music as a healing influence which could affect health and behavior is as least as old as the writings of Aristotle and Plato. The 20th century profession formally began after World War I and World War II when community musicians of all types, both amateur and professional, went to Veterans hospitals around the country to play for the thousands of veterans suffering both physical and emotional trauma from the wars. The patients' notable physical and emotional responses to music led the doctors and nurses to request the hiring of musicians by the hospitals. It was soon evident that the hospital musicians needed some prior training before entering the facility and so the demand grew for a college curriculum. The first music therapy degree program in the world, founded at Michigan State University in 1944, celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1994. The American Music Therapy Association was founded in 1998 as a union of the National Association for Music Therapy and the American Association for Music therapy." American Music Therapy Association
1789 in an unsigned article in Columbian Magazine titled "Music Physically Considered."
In the early 1800s, using therapeutic music appeared in two medical dissertations.
Also the first recorded music therapy intervention in an institutional setting and first recorded systematic experiment in music therapy during this time.
According to an article in the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, music therapy is a valuable adjunct in the oncology setting
Decrease patient stress and anxiety
Relieve pain and nausea
Promote expression of feelings
Musical intervention by untrained people can be ineffective or can even cause increased stress and discomfort.
In response to the increasing demand, the music therapy profession has worked to facilitate the reimbursement process for clients of music therapy services.
The American Music Therapy Association now estimates that approximately 20% of music therapists receive third party reimbursement for the services they provide.
There are currently a few states that allow payment for music therapy services through use of Medicaid Home and Community Based Care waivers with certain client groups.
Music therapy has been identified as a reimbursable service under benefits for Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP).
The music therapy must be considered an active treatment by meeting the following criteria:
1. Be prescribed by a physician;
2. Be reasonable and necessary for the treatment of the individual’s illness or injury;
3. Be goal directed and based on a documented treatment plan;
4. The goal of treatment cannot be to merely maintain current level of functioning; the individual must exhibit some level of improvement.
Nursing Implications and Research
Other trials have shown evidence in a reduction in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, insomnia, depression, and anxiety with use of music therapy.
There is evidence for improvement in brain circulation and there are studies that reveal listening to Mozart increases activity in certain areas of the brain – this phenomenon is known as the “Mozart effect”.
One contraindication involves patient preference.
Caution should be used with patients with hearing difficulties.
Music Therapy Example
Relying on this type of treatment alone and avoiding or delaying conventional medical care for cancer may have serious health consequences.
Postoperative pain is a common problem and music therapy provides a comfort measure that can lessen anxiety, worry, and sadness, which helps make the postoperative experience more satisfying.
According to one study done by Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center (2013), music provides a level of distraction in reducing pain, relieving anxiety, and reducing environmental noise in post-op patients. (p. 313).
Volume of Current Use
Where are music therapists found in the workplace?
You can find them in psych hospitals, rehab facilities, medical hospitals, outpatient clinics, drug and alcohol programs, and senior centers
Who can benefit from music therapy?
From children to seniors, those with mental health needs, learning disabilities, brain injuries, substance abusers, and those in pain.
Speech and language – a nonverbal child that may be resistant to speaking may feel more comfortable in the nonverbal activities of music making
Physical – slow and gentle music can relax a child with hypertensive contractions to allow increased flexibility
Educational – cognitive development through remembering sequences such as the alphabet song
Psychological – use in impulse control (relevant to the special education population) – through the use of rhythm and beats children can learn to experience order and structure
Social – music therapy can allow children to express individuality
What makes you qualified to practice music therapy?
Those who complete one of the approved music therapy programs (including an internship) are then eligible to take the national exam (Certification Board for Music Therapists) and become certified music therapists.
The American Music Therapy Association promotes research that explores the benefits of music therapy.
Clinical trials show evidence that music therapy helps relieve short term pain (particularly in situations with cancer patients).