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Transcript of Psychology Timeline
4th Century BC
14th September 1849- 27th February 1936
Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist and is known for his research in classical conditioning. His theory demonstrates how behaviour is learnt through association. He found out through the observation of his dogs, how stimulus response bonds were formed. By pairing a bell (a neutral stimulus) and meat powder (an unconditional stimulus) the dogs learnt to associate the bell with the food. This meant that at the sound of the bell, which was now a conditional stimulus, the dogs would salivate, which was a conditional response. Pavlov called his theory 'psychic reflexes' but it is now known as classical conditioning.
31st August 1874-9th August 1949
Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist whose studies in behaviourism lead to the discovery of operant conditioning which involves learning from the repercussions of our actions. From this he created the theory of the 'Law of effect' by observing how long cats took to get out of a puzzle box if there was a reward outside. The cats learnt to press the lever that would open the door and soon adpoted that behaviour, making them fast to get out and to the reward. Thorndike found that if behaviour had a good consequence, it will be repeated but if it has a bad consequence then behaviour will be stopped and stated this in his 'Law of effect'.
6th May 1856-23rd September 1939
Sigmund Freud was a Austrian neurologist and is known as the founding father of psychoanalysis and is famous for his theories in personality development and behaviour.
He divided the mind into 3 parts: the conscious, preconscious and unconscious. Conscious includes everything we are aware of which sometimes includes memory. Since memories can be brought into consciousness it is Preconscious. The Unconscious mind is where feelings, thoughts, memories outside our awareness and urges are kept and, in Freud's theory, this is the part of the mind that can affect our unexplained slip of the tongue or behaviour.
Freud also described that the personality was made of three aspects. The ID is the primary part and is present from birth. It contains instinctive and primitive behaviour and seeks gratification of desires such as food if a person is hungry. The ego deals with the ID and reality, to see if satisfying the ID is appriote in that time and place. The superego includes the morals of right and wrong that we have recieved from our parents and society and starts to emege in the mind at the age of five. Sigmund Freud's theory was that these three parts have to work equally otherwise the person will become too disruptive or reserved.
is the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes including perception, cognition and emotion. The word psychology is derived from the Greek words 'psych' meaning mind and 'logy' meaning the subject of study.
Max Wertheimer was born in Prague in the Czech Republic and the main theorist in the trio that foundered the Gestalt theory. This theory stated that when the mind is given a problem, it looks at it as a whole not in parts. The Phi phenomenon was described by Wertheimer. It was an optical illusion that explains how the eye takes in the illusion as a whole not as individual pieces of information and is perceived as movement.
15th April 1880-12th October 1943
1st April 1908-8th June 1970
Abraham Malsow was a psychologist who was born in America. The 'Hierarchy of needs' is one of Maslow's most well know pieces of work. It describes the requirements that people have to reaching self-actualization. The Hierarchy had 5 different levels and the requirements of each level had to be completed before a person could move up a level. These levels were: physiological needs, saftey needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs and finally self-actualization. Abraham Maslow stated that all of the aspects of each level needed to be fulfilled but some needs to priority over others such as needing water more than food but air more than water.
8th January 1902-4th February 1987
Carl Rogers was an American psychologist who agreed with Abraham Maslow's theory, that for a person to reach their potential certain needs had to be fulfilled. But he added to this theory that the person needed to be in the right environment to grow. This environment needed to give a person empathy, loyalty, honesty and acceptance. In one aspect, Rogers disagreed with Maslow as he thought that everyone can reach their goals and desires and when they did that, that's when self-actualization took place.
4th December 1925-Present day
Albert Bandura was born in Mundare, Canada. His Bobo doll study done in 1961, was his most famous experiment. He made a film of a woman beating a Bobo doll around while shouting at it aggressively and showed it to a group of children. After this, he let the children play with the doll and watched their behaviour. The children began to beat the doll and shout some of the words the women said in the video. This discovery led to Albert Bandura's theory that behaviour can be learnt not only though association and rewards, but though observation. He called this observational learning and motivation, attention, retention and reciprocation were important for it to be successful.
7th December 1928-Present day
Chomsky was born in Philadelphia and is a linguist, cognitive scientist, historian and philosopher. His work in Linguistics had opened new ideas in psychology. Noam Chomsky’s theory was that the ability to speak was not something we were born with, but imitating the utterances and noises we heard. He also stated that formal grammar is responsible for a person’s ability to understand things. As Chomsky believed that animals and humans could comprehend linguistic information but only humans could develop this ability though a process which he called Language Acquisition Device or LAD.
Aristotle lived in Ancient Greece and was one of the first psychologist that we have a record of. His Para Psyche or About the mind, was the first know text in the history of psychology. Aristotle stated in this that the mind is the primary reason for the functioning of the body. His theory was also the first to state that the mind controls all of the human urges and impulses that determines our lives.
12th February 1809-19th April 1882
Charles Darwin was a British naturalist but his work influenced many different sciences, mainly biology and psychology. He found though his work with animals, that humans and animals have a common ancestor and similar genes. This meant that psychologists could study an animal to learn about human behaviour. This had been done for hunderds of years before but Darwin introduced new fields of study such as social interaction, memory, learning and emotions. Charles Darwin's work such as his evolutionary theory, is refereed to explain theories in modern day psychology.
20th August 1913-17th April 1994
Sperry was born in Conneticut and was a neuropsychologist and neurobiologist. In the early 1960's, Roger Sperry and his colleagues studied an epileptic man to find out how is brain functioned. In this study, Sperry found that the left side of the brain was responsible for verbal and academic tasks where as the right side understood more musical and visual tasks. His work introduced a area of study in psychology and understanding the brain.
7th November 1929- Present day
Eric Kandel is an American neuropsychiatrist who born in Vienna, Austria. The outstanding research that he did demonstrated how memories are created. Kandel also researched how the neurons in the brain change when learning. During his work mice and sea slugs, Eric Kandel found how the brain’s long and short-term memory. Thanks to his research, progress was made in the creation of cures for diseases that take away the memory.
11th January 1842-26th August 1910
William James was born in America and was a philosopher and psychologist. James disagreed with the idea of introspection and breaking down a person's mental thought processes. He spent his time researching how environments and situations as a whole, affect a person's behaviour.
Born in Barmen, the German psychologist Herman Ebbinghaus used experimental studying to learn about memory. He used himself as the test subject in his experiments. In these experiments, Ebbinghaus tested his memory by using three letter random syllables and recalling them during different periods of time ranging form 20 minutes to 31 days. From his results, Hermann Ebbinghaus created the forgetting curve, which showed how time affects memory. The forgetting curve also showed that after a certain point the information levels off and doesn’t continue to decline.
26th January 1891-5th April 1976
Wilder Penfield was a Canadian neurosurgeon who was born in Spokane, Washington. During the 1950’s, Penfield worked with patients who had severe epilepsy. He wanted to find out the part of the brain that caused the seizure and remove it. Wilder Penfield during one of his surgeries that when he stimulated certain parts of the brain he could get a response, but only the temporal lobes (the lower parts of the brain) could give more distinct responses such as sounds, memories, colours and movements. These memories would be more vivid than memories that were retrieved normally. Penfield also found that the same memory or sound was stimulated.
24th Janurary 1850-26th February 1909
21st January 1887-11th June 1967
9th August 1896-16th Septmeber 1980
11th July 1943-Present day
John B. Watson:
9th January 1878-25th September 1958
20th March 1904-18th August 1990
31st March 1596- 11th February 1650
28th June 1824-9th July 1880
16th August 1832- 31st August 1920
26th July 1875-6th June 1961
Descartes was a french philosopher, mathematician and scientist. He introduced new theories about how the mind and body work which influenced many psychologists after him to think and study the mind in different ways. Descartes was the founder of modern psychology.
The idea at the time was that the mind and body where one but Descartes brought in the idea that the mind and the body where two different things but worked very closely together. This led to the theory of the brain controlling the mind and new discoveries about the brain and how we think.
Paul Broca was a French surgeon, anatomist, physician and anthropologist. Broca theory was that people who receive a brain injury will have disabilites and found that people that had suffered from damage to the frontal lobe of the brain couldn't make understand complex sentences properly. After studying a brain damaged man who could only pronounce the word 'Tan', he discovered that a person's abilities were controlled by different parts of the brain.
Wundt was born in Germany and was a psychologist, physician, philosopher and professor. He is regarded as the father of psychology because he defined the difference between psychology and philosophy. Wilhelm Wundt introduced introspection to scientifically develop a theory of conscious thought. His introspection method wasn't used past the 1920s but Wundt influenced other psychologist, mainly behaviourists, to use a more experimental approach to become more scientific.
Carl Jung was born in Kesswil, Switzerland and was a psychotherapist and psychiatrist. Jung was the partner of Sigmund Freud until they separated, as they did not see eye to eye. He believed that the human mind was spilt into three parts: the ego or conscious mind, the personal unconscious mind and the collective unconscious. Jung thought that the collective unconscious mind was where the knowledge and experiences of all human kind were kept. He stated in Psychological Types that for a person to become their true self and develop as a person, the conscious and unconscious mind had to merge completely.
John B. Watson was an America psychologist who was born in Travellers Rest, South Carolina. His most famous experiment was called the ‘Little Alpert’ experiment where he and his assistant Rosalie Rayner trained a small boy to be scared of a white rat. They did this by pairing a loud, clanging noise with the white rat. The discovered that this fear the boy had for the rat transferred to other furry, white objects. Watson’s experiment is criticized, as they did not decondition the boy.
B.F. Skinner was and American psychologist, social philosopher and inventor. He was born in Susquehanna in Pennsylvania and studied behaviourism. His was famous for his research in operant conditioning and negative reinforcements. Skinner thought differently from Watson or Pavlov, he believed that behaviour depended on what happened after the response not because of the stimulus. He called this operant behaviour.
Wolfgang Köhler was a German psychologist and phenomenologist who, like Max Wertheimer, studied Gestalt psychology. He conducted experiments on chimpanzees to reveal their intelligence. Köhler found through making the chimps solve problems that they have the ability to uses simple tools to build straightforward structures. He published his findings in his 1917 book called Intelligenzprüfungen an Menschnaffen or The Mentality of Apes.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher. His first job in psychology was to translate English intelligence test into french. He became extremely interested with the reasons why children answered the question wrong even though it required common sense. Piaget came up with the theory that the ways that children and adults think are on different levels. Jean Piaget worked with children to study their cognitive development. He was the first psychologist to use systematic study and used simple but imaginative test to uncover the many abilities of the brain.
Howard Gardner is an American development psychologist. His most renowned work was his theory of multiple intelligences. In Gardner’s theory he states that all people have different ways of learning and thinks, which meant that traditional intelligence tests don’t apply to everyone. Gardner’s theory changed the way that human intelligence was researched. There are 8, possibly 9 different types.1. Visual-Spatial intelligence2. Linguistic-Verbal intelligence3. Mathematical intelligence4. Kinesthetic intelligence5. Musical intelligence6. Interpersonal intelligence7. Intrapersonal intelligence8.Naturalistic intelligence and9. Existential intelligence