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Transcript of Social Constructivism
II. Intro. to Social Constructivism
III. Applications Realism focuses on power... ...but what constitutes power? "The ability to get someone to do something they would not otherwise do." Soft Power: the ability to get others to do what you want by co-opting them rather than coercing them. --Less resistance or more voluntarism
--Increases prestige, reputation
--Institutional benefits Where does soft power come from (Nye)? Culture? Political Values? Foreign Policy? The Mullet Social Constructivism
an approach (not a theory) to international politics that concerns itself with the centrality of ideas and human consciousness.
a) structures of human association (e.g. anarchy) are determined primarily by shared ideas rather than material forces
b) identities and interests of actors are constructed by these shared ideas and understandings Rooted in sociology and anthropology of Weber (left) and Durkheim (right) Identity: relatively stable, role specific understandings and expectations about self.
Norm: standard of appropriate behavior for an actor of a given identity. B. Two Logics Logic of Consequences attributes human behavior to the anticipated costs and benefits of a given action. If take action, will create outcome—consequence to my behavior. Take action, because anticipate those consequences.
(action driven by strategic calculation of how choice is likely to further preferences) Logic of Appropriateness attributes behavior to what is normatively appropriate (how ought I behave in this situation?)
(action determined by sense of self and what is appropriate for situation) C. Constructivism applied What is the biggest threat facing the US? Today: Key terms: soft power, epistemic communities, identity, norm, constructivism, logic of consequences, logic of appropriateness, "clash of civilizations" International organizations as social environments. Symbol of power? Theoretical Assumptions
Outcomes!!! 1) Does gender matter in international relations? If so, why and what are some examples?
2) Would IR operate differently if most leaders were women? If so, why? If not, why not?
Please write down answers anonymously on a single piece of paper. Difference feminism
Postmodern feminism Do you trust this man?
I. Gender in International Politics
--Why might gender matter?
II. What if women ruled the world?
III. A "girl effect?"
Key terms: difference feminism, liberal feminism, post-modern feminism, "girl effect"