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Communication

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Rebecca Snow

on 14 June 2015

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Transcript of Communication

Communication
Theory

What is Communication Theory?
"Communication means that information is passed from one place to another"

Jo Simpson
Rebecca Snow
Instructional Design
Dr. Mara Alagic
14 June 2015
Transmissional
Behavioral
Interactive
Transactional

HOT Questions
Communication affects all areas of life and is directly related to many fields of study.
Journalism
Management science
Information Technology
Political Science
Education
Etc.
Four main theories of communication
1. Transmissional
2. Behavioral
3. Interactional
4. Transactional


Noise is anything that interferes with the message

sound
confusing images
differing values related to the topic
several people talking at once
the use of ambiguous words.

Noise needs not always be auditory, it can be visual or even cultural.
Noise
Communication Theory in the Classroom
Communication Theory in the Classroom

Cultural Influences
Influences on Written Communication
Influences on Visual Communication
Information Load
Attention getting
Cultural Influences
on Communication
Written Language
Visual Communication
Information Load
Attention
Information Load
Information Load: the number of chunks for information being transmitted.
Number of words
Number of concepts
Complexity of the sentence structure
Number of details in a picture
Use of color
Use of Motion
Rate of delivery
Amount of redundancy
"Too much redundancy or too fast a presentation can lead to an unnecessary number of stimuli through which the human brain must sort and select."
The Balance
The efficiency of any instruction is dependent on the message's load.
Messages transmitted through both auditory and visual channels can increase learning because they engage auditory and visual memory.
But...
Consider the content load of a typical lesson...
...is it effective for communication?
News reports are known for overloading their listeners
Influences on Written Language
Language is complex and encompasses far more than the words used.
Visual Communication
visual language is rooted in perception
it affects us directly and involves instinct and emotion.
Rules for visual communication stem from Gestaltian theory
The brain notices patterns and relationships between objects.
The brain groups similar objects together.
The human brain notes
dominant
aspects of the image.
Subtleties
are often lost.
We also perceive what we expect based on past experience.
Instructional Design relies heavily on visuals because pictures are more easily remembered than words.
"Visuals can serve not only as elements of instruction materials, but as the instructional message itself."
Hot Question: What visual teaching materials do you use? Why are they effective or ineffective?
What do you notice first?
What is your eye drawn to?
What are the dominate and subtle aspects?
Good Instructional designers are most always good writers.
The human mind is able to process messages that are well organized more quickly.
"Information is easier to remember when it is in an orderly state, rich in patterns and structure, highly interconnected, containing a good deal of redundancy. Disorderly information that lacks structure is easy to forget.
Watch for...
passive voice
abstract expressions
lack of examples
page and text size
font
capitalization
italicizing
spacing
Milton N. Campos is Assistant Professor of Networked Communication and Cognition at the Department of Communication of the University of Montreal. Dr Campos has a Doctorate in Psychology, and a Master in Communication by the University of São Paulo. Post-doctoral research was carried out at Simon Fraser University. He has been awarded several grants to study different aspects of networked communication and community building by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Research Council for the Society and Culture of the Province of Québec
Wilbur Schramm is considered one of the founding fathers of the mass communications field. In the 20th century, Schramm revolutionized mass communication as a scholastic discipline, segregating it from other forms of communication study. Schramm's own personal affliction of struggling with a stutter affected the way in which he communicated with the world around him and how he thought about communication.
Westely and Maclean realized that communication does not begin when one person starts to talk, but rather when a person responds selectively to his/her physical surroundings. This model considers a strong relation between responds from surroundings and the process of communication. Communication begins only when a person receives message from surroundings. Each receiver responds to the message they received based on their object of orientation.
Designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies.
In the transactional model, two people communicate with multiple messages through what may be multiple channels and with parallel messages.

As with other models, the messages may be distorted and the people may be distracted, resulting in misunderstanding that fuels and hinders the model.

In regards to a story
Teacher: "who knows what a lame man is?"
Student: "a guy who ain't got no style

In math class
Teacher: what is the likelihood of drawing yellow?
Student: Where is the likely hood? I live in the hood.
Cultural "noise" in nonverbal communication
When designing instruction using written language
Count the information load in this video
Weatherman's voice (Auditory)
Woman's voice in background (Auditory)
Ringing phone (Auditory)
Words on three parts of the screen (Written)
Scroll across the bottom of the screen (Visual/Written)
Changing pictures and videos (Visual)
Lightening in the background (Visual)
The weatherman (Visual)
Radar (Visual)
Also note the use of color and constant motion
Load
What visual teaching materials do you use? Why are they effective or ineffective?

What cultural "noise" effects your class instruction? How can you eliminate the noise?

Consider the "load" of your instructional technique. How could you best engage your students in the material?
"When there are connections between this prior knowledge and the content of the message, learners tend to pay more attention to this familiar material."
Akin, J., Goldberg, A., Myers, G. Stewart, J. (1970). L
anguage Behavior.
The Hague: Paris

Communication Models. (n.d.). Retrieved June 14, 2015, from http://www.cc.utah.edu/~hlg24660/hwrk3/hwork3.htm

Transactional Model of Communication. (n.d.). Retrieved June 14, 2015, from https://www.natcom.org/transactionalmodel/


Communication theorists and instructional designers alike are concerned with how certain parts of a message are noticed and acted upon and others are missed
Cueing Techniques: designed to enhance
quick perception
Arrows
Highlighting
Color
Size
Bold text
Sound
Animation
Sequential relationships in charts
Content Generated Attention
Cueing
Scaffolding builds on students previous knowledge and helps draw their attention
Interesting stories, cartoons, or animations can actually disrupt learning by diverting processing to irrelevant details.
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