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The British Civil War
Transcript of The British Civil War
Puritans asserted right of parliament against mounting
claims of royalty Charles had support in North and West (Welsh and Cornish).
Parliament had London, South, and East of England.
The Parliamentary Army called the Ironsides, Oliver Cromwell rose in the ranks to leader.
1643 King close to victory --> Parliament formed alliance with Scotland Kings forces defeated at Marston Moor in 1644 with help of Scottish.
Charles lost control of the North. 1645 King Charles is defeated by New Model Army at Naseby. Royalists defeated. Charles surrenders to the Scots, who handed him over to parlaiment.
As Captive King continued to resist. Army center for Democratic ideals.
Radical soldiers and officers thought Kingdom could not be settled in peace with Charles.
Parliament hesitated, Cromwell broke them up --> Prides Purge. Cromwell and remaining members of Parliament charged and found King Charles guilty of high treason.
Beheaded January 1649 Republican Regime Founded: The Commonwealth
Declared Religious freedom for all: except Unitarians.
Athiests, Roman Catholics, and high Anglicans.
Chiefly supported by the power of the New Model Army Oliver Cromwell External Affairs Successful: brought Ireland under control,
Navigation Act of 1651, War with Spain (Jamaica) Internal: Scotland revolts after death of Charles I.
Increased violence against Catholics.
English people do not support him. Unable to agree with Rump, he abolished it in 1653.
Attempted to govern as Lord Protector.
Representative bodies devised by Cromwell.
Constitution: "The Instrument of Goverment" Places England under military control
Regime of "Major Generals"
Moral puritanism and political dictatorship Cromwell dies in 1658
Son unable to maintain protectorate
2 years later royalty restored, Charles II Cromwells Legacy
Ruled as dictator on behalf of Puritan minority
Remembered as nightmare of standing armies, major generals, and religious enthusiasts.
English lose enthusiasm for democratic ideas after 1660.
Succesful external affairs: Made peace with the Dutch, Defeated Spain (Jamaica).
Education flourished under puritan ideals and value of education (literacy). John Pym: Acknowledged leader of political opposition to the King.
Member of Long and Short parliament (April to May 1640).
1640 made speech that led to dissolution.
Charles wanted money for war, Pym unwilling until church and state policy addressed.
Led charges that tried and beheaded the Earl of Strafford and abolished courts.