Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

The Brain and Behaviour

Useful links for the Stage 1 Psychology Unit
by

Gerald Carey

on 4 December 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Brain and Behaviour

The Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Hindbrain
Midbrain
Forebrain
Cerebellum
Medulla
Pons
Reticular formation
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Cerebral Cortex
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Neurons (Nerves)
Structure
Soma
(cell body)
Dendrite
Axon
Synaptic knobs
(buttons)
Myelin sheath
Function
Sensory neurons
Interneurons
Motor Neurons
Transmission
Within the neuron
Between neurons
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine
Norepinephrine
Dopamine
Serotonin
Endorphins
The Cortical Lobes
Primary motor cortex
Broca's area
Primary sensory cortex
Primary visual cortex
Primary auditory cortex
Wernicke's area
Studying the brain
Historical
Phrenology
EEG
Neuroimaging
CAT
PET
MRI
fMRI
Sometimes the messages get mixes up.
Sensory motor mismatch
A sensory motor mismatch can be created in the following way.
Place your arms on either side of a mirror and look at the reflection of the stationary front arm, while moving the arm that is hidden behind the mirror.
This creates confusion because the brain knows that it is moving the left arm, but it “sees” the left arm as stationary because of the illusion created by the mirror.
It’s not surprising that this would feel weird but the interesting thing is that it actually causes pain to many people.
Coordination of fine muscle movement
Activities to do with proprioception
http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/proprioception/index.html
Naked Scientists example Auditory illusion
http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/interviews/interview/1264/
Music auditory illusions from New Scientist
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13355-music-special-five-great-auditory-illusions.html
Bad lip reading of Mitt Romney
Hearing activities
http://www.cafemuse.com/soundgarden/perception/outer_ear.htm
Optical illusions
Magicians - mis-attention
Human faces
Visual effects
Impossible 3D structures
Pareidolia
Touch illusions
New Scientist
http://www.newscientist.com/special/tactile-illusions
Lots more here:
http://www.cim.mcgill.ca/~haptic/pub/VH-BRB-07.pdf
Video: an Ocean of sensations
http://www.brainfacts.org/sensing-thinking-behaving/senses-and-perception/articles/2012/an-ocean-of-sensations/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/senseschallenge/senses.swf
Do as class activity - includes explanations
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=whats-in-a-face
Art
http://macknik.neuralcorrelate.com/node/6
http://bbs.chinadaily.com.cn/thread-746958-1-1.html
Videos
On paper: http://www.juxtapoz.com/Illustration/ramon-bruins-illustrative-illusions
On the pavement: http://www.odditycentral.com/pics/eduardo-releros-mind-blowing-optical-illusions.html
For safety: http://preventable.ca/2010/09/07/shifting-attitudes-with-illusions/
Audio pareidolia: http://theness.com/roguesgallery/index.php/skepticism/audio-pareidolia/
50 things that look like faces: http://www.geekosystem.com/things-that-look-like-faces-pareidolia/
Definition: http://www.skepdic.com/pareidol.html
Disappearing banana: http://bcove.me/vi2wmfid
Shadow Art: http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/shadow-art/
Human body as an art canvas: http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/world/incredible-illusionary-japanese-make-up-artist-uses-humans-as-canvas/story-fnd134gw-1226501342042
How to make 3D street art:
Beau Lotto: http://www.ted.com/talks/beau_lotto_optical_illusions_show_how_we_see.html
Optical illusions show us how we see (16 minutes in length)
Activities: http://www.sandlotscience.com/EyeonIllusions/PersonalFoolery.htm
Three main functions:
Receive information
Process information
Coordinate a Response
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
light and colour
sound
body damage
touch
glucose levels
body temperature
smell
Sensory receptors
Voluntary Muscle Movement
Body Organ Responses
increase
decrease
Heart beat
Digestion
Release of blood sugar by liver
Sensory Neurons
Interneurons
Interneuron
Motor neurons
Highly specialised
Respond to specific types of stimulation
e.g. light, taste, touch, pressure
Connect receptors to the Central Nervous System
Detect and receive signals
Determines if signal is to be transmitted
Single, long (some around one meter) tube to send signals to other cells, muscles or organs
Surrounds the axon and helps the signal to move faster
Links to other cells.
Releases chemicals that cross the synaptic gap to other cells
Found mainly in the CNS
Collect information from sensory nerves
Send information to the motor nerves
All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and the spinal cord (CNS)
CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord
Autonomic Nervous System is a network of nerves connecting the CNS with many of the organs (eg heart) or glands (e.g. pancreas) of the body.
Arouses body in response to danger or stress
Flight or fight effect
Detailed video on what happens in the body when sensing danger
Feedback loops
Returns body processes e.g. heart beat, back to 'normal'
Increase in breathing
Increase in heart rate
Pale/flushed
Digestion slows or stops
Constriction of blood vessels
Release of glucose
Dilation of pupils
Increase in alertness
Decrease in breathing rate to 'normal'
Decrease in heart rate to 'normal'
Digestion returns to 'normal'
Dilation of blood vessels to 'normal' size
Levels of alertness return to 'normal'
'Normal'
'Normal'
Somatic Nervous System is a network of nerves connecting the CNS with many of the muscles of the body that control voluntary movement.
e.g. muscles in arms, legs, back.
Video showing link between nerve fibres and muscle movement
http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Sporting-Edge/Sci-Media/Animations-and-Interactives/Muscle-movement
Spinal Cord
Regulate autonomic nervous system e.g heart rate, breathing rate.
Motor control, sleep, connects cerebellum to cerebral cortex
Regulates alertness and modifies muscle movement
Contains 90% of the brain
Connects hind brain to forebrain
Coordinates sensory and motor processes
Connects the spinal cord with the brain
Coordinates essential body functions
e.g. heart rate, blood pressure
Receives information from all senses (except smell) and sends the information to the appropriate part of the brain e.g. visual information goes to the visual cortex.
Functions:
influences autonomic nervous system
controls release of hormones around the body
influences basic behaviours e.g. hunger, thirst
Consists of 75% of the Forebrain.
Involved in speech, learning, thinking and problem solving.
Carries information from the CNS to muscles involved in voluntary movement.
Just show the first two minutes. Accent a little hard to follow.
connect to...
(May include receptors)
Sensory neurons are part of...
in particular, sensory neurons are part of
What are neurons?
Neuron
Neuron
Sending signals inside the neuron
Sending signals to other neurons or cells
is a long column of
nerve

tissue
that extends from the base of the brain and is encased in the spinal column (backbone).
Sensory information
Spinal cord
Brain
Response
Reflexes
Spinal cord mainly made up of
It includes...
Hindbrain
1. Function of the nervous system
2. Function of the nervous system...
...through the...
is made up of three main sections....
It includes...
It includes...
The cortex is further divided into...
Damage to skin
Picked up by pain receptors
Travels along
sensory nerve
to
interneuron
in spinal cord
to
motor neuron
to muscle tissue
which then contracts
.
Collect information and send it to the brain and spinal cord
Send messages from the brain and spinal cord to body muscles
Receive information from sensory nerves and send information to motor nerves
Midbrain
3. Function of the nervous system
Coordination by the brain and spinal cord
Response carried out by muscles and organs
Peripheral Nervous System
The hormones that send signals between nerve cells are called...
Responsible for speech production
Podcast about speech illusions
http://www.radiolab.org/2007/sep/24/behaves-so-strangely/
Example of how the brain extracts speech out of random sound
Confusing colours
http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/kitchenscience/exp/confusing-colours/
Temperature illusion: (needs hot, very cold and tap water) http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/kitchenscience/exp/how-to-fool-your-senses/
Receptors
Receptors
Receptors
Receptors
Receptors
Receptors
Receptors
They maintain communication
between
neurons
Are
chemicals
released by the synaptic knobs
They travel across the
synaptic gap
and activate the next neuron
Found in all
motor neurons
Sends signal to muscle cells to
contract
Linked to
memory and learning
Low levels
linked to Alzheimer's disease.
Pronounced: nor - eppa - neph - rine
Used by neurons associated with
arousal, wakefulness, learning and mood
.
Also involved in
'flight or fight'
response.
Neurons in the
midbrain
use dopamine
Associated with
emotional responses
and
complex movement
Pleasure
or
reward
hormone.
Too
little
dopamine associated with Parkinson's disease.
Too
much
associated with schizophrenia.
Cocaine and amphetamines trigger the
release
of dopamine
Neurons only in the brain and particularly in the
pons
release serotonin
Also involved in
mood
and
sleep onset
.
Regulates
body temperature
,
perception
and
aggression
and
impulsive behaviour
Obviously a psychology student!
Pain relieving
hormone produce by neurons in the
brain
and
spinal cord
.
Similar to
morphine
but much more effective
Released when we are
stressed
or
anxious
or after
intense exercise
.
Messages from the sensory nervous system eventually get to the...
Different regions of the skull are responsible for different behaviours.
Difficult to study because it is enclosed by the skull and made up of many layers.
Totally discredited.
Records patterns of electrical activity that occurs in the brain.
Can be use to detect if a person is alert, lightly sleeping or dreaming.
Various techniques where 'snapshots' of brain activity are taken to show changes in brain activity over time
Part of the brain that initiates voluntary movements in specific body parts.
Decision-making part of the brain; also regulates mood, personality and emotion.
Receives information from specific parts of the body
Processes visual information and is involved in shape, colour and motion perception.
Receive, organise and interpret visual information from the eyes.
Involved in hearing, language comprehension and our ability to remember faces.
Role is to receive, organise and interpret sound from the ears.
Involved in comprehension of speech.
Once the brain has 'decided' how to respond to visual, auditory or other information, it sends messages via...
...to the
..and then to...
and the
It regulates functions of the body that are unconscious e.g. heart beat, release of insulin
The Autonomic Nervous System is also broken up into two major sections.
made up of...
Second part of autonomic nervous system includes...
has
which control
The McGurk Illusion
The Rubber Hand Illusion
What happens when your senses get it wrong?
Sometimes we miss information
How drugs interfere with these chemicals e.g. alcohol
Reflexes you are born with
http://natgeotv.com.au/tv/brain-games/videos.aspx
Go here for some brain games:
Multitasking: is it a myth?
http://www.typingmaster.com/games/keyman.asp?keys=abcdefghijklmnopsqrstuvwxyz&Submit=Start+Game
Try playing this typing game whilst listening to music!
Try this.
Take your shoes and socks off and stand up.
Now, whilst still standing, put your sock back onto your favoured foot.
Not so easy.
Now try your non-favoured foot!

Find your heart rate.
Then watch this movie
Find your heart rate again.
Any difference? Why?
As good as humans are at picking things up, we are still prone to 'change blindness'.
Try this.
While sitting lift your right leg off the ground and rotate your foot clockwise. Now with your right hand draw the number six (6) in the air.
What happens to the foot?
Synaptic knob (green) opened to reveal vesicles carrying neurotransmitters (blue)
...nerve fibres...
Read about a woman who has lived without a cerebellum
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329861.900-woman-of-24-found-to-have-no-cerebellum-in-her-brain.html#.VBQh_fldV8E
Incredible detail of neurones in mouse brain
Four touch illusions
Try this (needs IR thermometer):
get a wooden and a metal surface.
Estimate the temperature of both surfaces
Check with an IR thermometer.
Each 'sense' has sensory receptors which detect...
...and send information to the brain...
Full transcript