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The Brain and Behaviour
Transcript of The Brain and Behaviour
Central Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Within the neuron
The Cortical Lobes
Primary motor cortex
Primary sensory cortex
Primary visual cortex
Primary auditory cortex
Studying the brain
Sometimes the messages get mixes up.
Sensory motor mismatch
A sensory motor mismatch can be created in the following way.
Place your arms on either side of a mirror and look at the reflection of the stationary front arm, while moving the arm that is hidden behind the mirror.
This creates confusion because the brain knows that it is moving the left arm, but it “sees” the left arm as stationary because of the illusion created by the mirror.
It’s not surprising that this would feel weird but the interesting thing is that it actually causes pain to many people.
Coordination of fine muscle movement
Activities to do with proprioception
Naked Scientists example Auditory illusion
Music auditory illusions from New Scientist
Bad lip reading of Mitt Romney
Magicians - mis-attention
Impossible 3D structures
Lots more here:
Video: an Ocean of sensations
Do as class activity - includes explanations
On paper: http://www.juxtapoz.com/Illustration/ramon-bruins-illustrative-illusions
On the pavement: http://www.odditycentral.com/pics/eduardo-releros-mind-blowing-optical-illusions.html
For safety: http://preventable.ca/2010/09/07/shifting-attitudes-with-illusions/
Audio pareidolia: http://theness.com/roguesgallery/index.php/skepticism/audio-pareidolia/
50 things that look like faces: http://www.geekosystem.com/things-that-look-like-faces-pareidolia/
Disappearing banana: http://bcove.me/vi2wmfid
Shadow Art: http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/shadow-art/
Human body as an art canvas: http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/world/incredible-illusionary-japanese-make-up-artist-uses-humans-as-canvas/story-fnd134gw-1226501342042
How to make 3D street art:
Beau Lotto: http://www.ted.com/talks/beau_lotto_optical_illusions_show_how_we_see.html
Optical illusions show us how we see (16 minutes in length)
Three main functions:
Coordinate a Response
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
light and colour
Voluntary Muscle Movement
Body Organ Responses
Release of blood sugar by liver
Respond to specific types of stimulation
e.g. light, taste, touch, pressure
Connect receptors to the Central Nervous System
Detect and receive signals
Determines if signal is to be transmitted
Single, long (some around one meter) tube to send signals to other cells, muscles or organs
Surrounds the axon and helps the signal to move faster
Links to other cells.
Releases chemicals that cross the synaptic gap to other cells
Found mainly in the CNS
Collect information from sensory nerves
Send information to the motor nerves
All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and the spinal cord (CNS)
CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord
Autonomic Nervous System is a network of nerves connecting the CNS with many of the organs (eg heart) or glands (e.g. pancreas) of the body.
Arouses body in response to danger or stress
Flight or fight effect
Detailed video on what happens in the body when sensing danger
Returns body processes e.g. heart beat, back to 'normal'
Increase in breathing
Increase in heart rate
Digestion slows or stops
Constriction of blood vessels
Release of glucose
Dilation of pupils
Increase in alertness
Decrease in breathing rate to 'normal'
Decrease in heart rate to 'normal'
Digestion returns to 'normal'
Dilation of blood vessels to 'normal' size
Levels of alertness return to 'normal'
Somatic Nervous System is a network of nerves connecting the CNS with many of the muscles of the body that control voluntary movement.
e.g. muscles in arms, legs, back.
Video showing link between nerve fibres and muscle movement
Regulate autonomic nervous system e.g heart rate, breathing rate.
Motor control, sleep, connects cerebellum to cerebral cortex
Regulates alertness and modifies muscle movement
Contains 90% of the brain
Connects hind brain to forebrain
Coordinates sensory and motor processes
Connects the spinal cord with the brain
Coordinates essential body functions
e.g. heart rate, blood pressure
Receives information from all senses (except smell) and sends the information to the appropriate part of the brain e.g. visual information goes to the visual cortex.
influences autonomic nervous system
controls release of hormones around the body
influences basic behaviours e.g. hunger, thirst
Consists of 75% of the Forebrain.
Involved in speech, learning, thinking and problem solving.
Carries information from the CNS to muscles involved in voluntary movement.
Just show the first two minutes. Accent a little hard to follow.
(May include receptors)
Sensory neurons are part of...
in particular, sensory neurons are part of
What are neurons?
Sending signals inside the neuron
Sending signals to other neurons or cells
is a long column of
that extends from the base of the brain and is encased in the spinal column (backbone).
Spinal cord mainly made up of
1. Function of the nervous system
2. Function of the nervous system...
is made up of three main sections....
The cortex is further divided into...
Damage to skin
Picked up by pain receptors
in spinal cord
to muscle tissue
which then contracts
Collect information and send it to the brain and spinal cord
Send messages from the brain and spinal cord to body muscles
Receive information from sensory nerves and send information to motor nerves
3. Function of the nervous system
Coordination by the brain and spinal cord
Response carried out by muscles and organs
Peripheral Nervous System
The hormones that send signals between nerve cells are called...
Responsible for speech production
Podcast about speech illusions
Example of how the brain extracts speech out of random sound
Temperature illusion: (needs hot, very cold and tap water) http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/kitchenscience/exp/how-to-fool-your-senses/
They maintain communication
released by the synaptic knobs
They travel across the
and activate the next neuron
Found in all
Sends signal to muscle cells to
memory and learning
linked to Alzheimer's disease.
Pronounced: nor - eppa - neph - rine
Used by neurons associated with
arousal, wakefulness, learning and mood
Also involved in
'flight or fight'
Neurons in the
dopamine associated with Parkinson's disease.
associated with schizophrenia.
Cocaine and amphetamines trigger the
Neurons only in the brain and particularly in the
Also involved in
Obviously a psychology student!
hormone produce by neurons in the
but much more effective
Released when we are
Messages from the sensory nervous system eventually get to the...
Different regions of the skull are responsible for different behaviours.
Difficult to study because it is enclosed by the skull and made up of many layers.
Records patterns of electrical activity that occurs in the brain.
Can be use to detect if a person is alert, lightly sleeping or dreaming.
Various techniques where 'snapshots' of brain activity are taken to show changes in brain activity over time
Part of the brain that initiates voluntary movements in specific body parts.
Decision-making part of the brain; also regulates mood, personality and emotion.
Receives information from specific parts of the body
Processes visual information and is involved in shape, colour and motion perception.
Receive, organise and interpret visual information from the eyes.
Involved in hearing, language comprehension and our ability to remember faces.
Role is to receive, organise and interpret sound from the ears.
Involved in comprehension of speech.
Once the brain has 'decided' how to respond to visual, auditory or other information, it sends messages via...
..and then to...
It regulates functions of the body that are unconscious e.g. heart beat, release of insulin
The Autonomic Nervous System is also broken up into two major sections.
made up of...
Second part of Peripheral Nervous System includes...
The McGurk Illusion
The Rubber Hand Illusion
What happens when your senses get it wrong?
Sometimes we miss information
How drugs interfere with these chemicals e.g. alcohol
Reflexes you are born with
Go here for some brain games:
Multitasking: is it a myth?
Try playing this typing game whilst listening to music!
Take your shoes and socks off and stand up.
Now, whilst still standing, put your sock back onto your favoured foot.
Not so easy.
Now try your non-favoured foot!
Find your heart rate.
Then watch this movie
Find your heart rate again.
Any difference? Why?
As good as humans are at picking things up, we are still prone to 'change blindness'.
While sitting lift your right leg off the ground and rotate your foot clockwise. Now with your right hand draw the number six (6) in the air.
What happens to the foot?
Synaptic knob (green) opened to reveal vesicles carrying neurotransmitters (blue)
Read about a woman who has lived without a cerebellum
Incredible detail of neurones in mouse brain
Four touch illusions
Try this (needs IR thermometer):
get a wooden and a metal surface.
Estimate the temperature of both surfaces
Check with an IR thermometer.
Each 'sense' has sensory receptors which detect...
...and send information to the brain...