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Persuasion

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by

Nicole Siminski

on 3 March 2014

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Transcript of Persuasion

Strategies for Persuasion
Connect with your Audience
So Basically...
The credibility constructed by the author through language or the text itself
Ethos
Credibility
Be Logical
Give a logical order/organization
ESTABLISH AUTHORITY
USE and CITE only credible and reliable sources
Street Smarts : practical wisdom
Virtue/Excellence : a good quality person
Good will to audience
Use the language correctly
ESTABLISH EXPERTISE
Use EFFECTIVE examples to demonstrate depth of experience
If appropriate, disclose why you are interested in the topic or personal experiences you have had with the topic
ESTABLISH TRUST
RESPECT the reader by addressing opposition
Establish COMMON GROUND with your audience
Acknowledge BELIEFS shared by both sides of the argument

Appeal to your audience's needs, values, emotional sensibilities

Pathos
Sympathy
Be "Pathetic" -- not in a bad way
Have sympathy or empathy
Evoke Emotion - **Last Resort in Argument
APPEAL TO EMOTION
Use more realistic sources such as interviews or individual stories to illuminate the truth
The Word
Words have the power to change
Appeals to Reason
Logos
Logical Reasoning
Develop paragraphs thoroughly
Be REASONable
SUPPORT your ideas with appropriate REASONS and FACTS
If a = b
and c = a
Then c must = b
Example:
The quality of life improved with fair trade agreements for coffee farmers
Coffee farmers are just like other farmers
The quality of life will improve with fair trade agreements for other farmers
A
B
B
C
C
A
=
=
=
Fair trade agreements have improved the quality of life for coffee producers, so fair trade could be used to help other farmers as well.
So...
Give a strong a = b that can be supported.
Make sure your audience would agree that b = c .
Then your a = c will be a logical assumption and good argument.
Ethos : Why should they believe you?

Pathos : How do they feel?

Logos : What do you want to say?

Statistics
appeals to the author's credibility
by providing reputable support
could appeal to the reader's logic by giving REASONable support for the claim
Personal Examples
appeals to the emotion of the reader
could appeal to the reader's logic by giving REASONable support for the claim
Expert Opinion
appeals to the author's credibility
by providing reputable support
could appeal to the reader's logic by giving REASONable support for the claim
Opposition
appeals to the author's credibility
by providing reputable support
could appeal to the reader's logic by giving REASONable support for the claim
Refutation or Concession
Metaphor
appeals to the reader's emotions by relating to the audience
could appeal to the reader's logic by giving REASONable support for the claim
Allusion or Historical Reference
could appeal to the reader's logic by giving REASONable support for the claim
appeals to the author's credibility
by providing reputable support
Statistics
"There are no descriptions of children surviving the fire. Various lists of those who died 95 years ago today--140 named victims plus six who were never identified...include one 11 year-old, two 14-year-olds, three 15 year-olds, 16 16-year-olds, and 14 17-year-olds" (Weber, 2011, p. 250).
Personal Examples
Case Vignette: A proud father at 17, "B" had had the smiling face of his 4-month-old baby girl tattooed on his chest. As we talked at a tattoo convention, he proudly introduced her to me, explaining how he would 'always know how beautiful she is today' when years from now he saw her semblance etched on himself" (Martin, 2011, p. 21).
Expert Opinion
"Dr. Deborah Tannen agrees. She is a professor of linguistics at Georgetown University and author of a number of books on gender and communication, including:
"The reason, I believe, is that meanings of words come from how they're used. And since the word 'feminist' is used as a negative term rather than a positive one, people don't want to be associated with it" (Pitts, 2011, p. 7)
Concession
"I can, to be sure, imagine rare circumstances in which I hope I would have the courage to kill for mercy––when the patient is utterly beyond human care, terminal, and in excruciating pain. A neurosurgeon once showed a group of physicians and an ethicist the picture of a Vietnam casualty who had lost all four limbs in a landmine explosion. The catastrophe had reduced the soldier to a trunk with his face transfixed in horror. On the battlefield I would hope that I would have the courage to kill the sufferer with mercy. But hard cases to not always make good laws or wise social policies.
Metaphor
"Feminist, it seems, has ended up in the same syntactical purgatory as another once-useful, now-reviled term: liberal. Most people endorse what that word has historically stood for--integration, child labor laws, product safety--yet they treat the word itself like anthrax" (Pitts, 2011, p. 6).
Allusion
"The skeleton dimensions I shall now proceed to set down are copied verbatim from my right arm, where I had them tattooed: as in my wild wanderings at that period, there was no other secure way of preserving such valuable statistics -Herman Melville" (Martin, 2011, p.18).
Refutation
"It's true that lower rates of alcohol-related traffic accidents now occur among drivers under the age of 21. But they've also been declining among those age 21 and older, with one notable exception. Raising the minimum legal drinking age has resulted in an apparent displacement of large numbers of alcohol-related traffic fatalities from those under the age of 21 to those age 21-24. In short, raising the drinking age simply changed the ages of those killed" (Hanson, 2011, p. 45)
Focus on the
argument
Focus on the
audience
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos can be used as a framework for the discussion on rhetorical strategies
When analyzing an argument...
When constructing an argument...
You're Wearing That? Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation.
Argument
Thank you!
They work together to create a powerful argument
Full transcript