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Foundations of American Government
Transcript of Foundations of American Government
A. Government Basics
III. The Constitution
A. Six Basic Principles
II. Origins of American Government
A. Our Political Beginnings
Foundations of American Government
B. Forms of Government
B. The Coming of Independence
C. The Critical Period
D. Creating the Constitution
E. Ratifying the Constitution
B. Formal Amendment
C. Other Changes
B. National Government and the States
C. Interstate Relations
b. Characteristics of "The State"
a. Government Basics
a. Force Theory
2. Major Political Ideas
b. Evolutionary Theory
c. Divine Right Theory
d. Social Contract Theory
1. Basic Terms
Institution through which society makes and enforces public policies
People living in a State
Known and recognized boundaries of land
Supreme and absolute power within its own territory
Every State is politically organized
created out of force
created the State and gave royalty a
“divine right to rule”
Gov'ts were created
voluntarily by free people
1. Who Can Participate
2. Geographic Distribution of Power
3. Relationship Between Legislative & Executive Branches
1. Worth of the Individual
2. Equality of All Persons
3. Majority Rule, Minority Rights
Although decisions are made by majority,
minority rights are protected
4. Necessity of Compromise
is needed since each individual is viewed as important
5. Individual Freedom
of the individual can't be used to limit the freedom of others
-1 Ruler (Autocracy)
-Few Rulers (Oligarchy)
-Power given to alliance of independent states
- Powers divided between central and local gov'ts
-Executive branch and legislative branches are separate
-Executive branch is a part of the legislative branch
The dignity and worth of
of opportunity and equality before the law
Democracy Quick Write
(Write in your warm up notebook)
To what extent do you think the United States holds up the democratic value of equality for all people today? Consider the history of the United States and its path toward equality. What gains do you think we've made? Is there any way we can improve? Write at least 5-6 sentences answering the question.
1. Basic Concepts of Government
2. Landmark English Documents
1. Declaration of Independence
2. Common Features of State Constitutions
1. The Articles of Confederation Structure
2. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
1. The Great Compromise
2. The Three-Fifths Compromise
3. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
4. A "Bundle of Compromises"
a. Virginia Plan
b. New Jersey Plan
c. Connecticut Compromise (The Great Compromise)
-Local gov'ts w/sheriffs, coroners, grand juries, etc.
-Gov't shouldn't be all-powerful.
-Gov't should serve the people
(1215) included rights like trial by jury and due process
Petition of Right
(1628) limited the king's powers and declared that kings must follow laws
English Bill of Rights (1689)
included right to a fair trial, no cruel and unusual punishment, etc.
Declaration of Independence
announced independence, listed grievances, and described some rights.
Declaration of Independence Assignment
Take out a piece of paper and title it "Declaration of Independence Assignment."
Get a government textbook and read the Declaration of Independence (pg 40-43).
Answer the questions 1-5 and 7 on page 43. Record your answers on the piece of paper you already took out. You must use complete sentences and write in pen.
-Civil Rights and Liberties
-Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
-No executive or judicial branches
-Each state had one vote
-Independent, sovereign states
-Congress couldn't collect taxes, regulate foreign/interstate commerce, or enforce laws
-9/13 majority to pass any laws
-No national courts
based on population
House of Rep
resentatives ---> Representation based on
3/5 of a person
when calculating population for representation and taxation.
There are a ton of less popular compromises too.
Congress could regulate foreign and interstate trade; however, it
couldn't tax the export of goods from any state
gov'ts and a weaker national gov'ts
Bill of Rights
1. Popular Sovereignty
power resides in the people
and gov't needs
consent of governed
2. Limited Government
Gov't is limited and must
obey the law
3. Separation of Powers
4. Checks and Balances
Each branch is
subject to constitutional checks
5. Judicial Review
Power of courts to determine
whether something is
division of power
1. Amendment Process
2. Bill of Rights
Proposed by 2/3 of Congress and ratified by 3/4 of each state legislature.
Proposed by 2/3 of Congress and ratified by conventions held in 3/4 of states.
(only 21st Amendment)
First 10 Amendments
added in 1791
1. Basic Legislation
2. Executive Action
3. Court Decisions
4. Party Practices
can add to the basic outline of gov't that the Constitution provides.
Presidents extend their powers through
The Supreme Court reinterprets the Constitution.
Marbury v Madison
(1803) gives the power of
Political parties aren't in the Constitution. They shape our
have defined the government, such as having a presidential Cabinet.
(Don't write: Some customs are now written, such as the 22nd Amendment's two-term limit on the presidency.)
1. Federalism Defined
Federalism divides power
s of gov't between the central/
t (Washington, D.C.) and
2. Powers of the National Government
a. Expressed Powers
b. Implied Powers
c. Inherent Powers
Expressed (enumerated) powers
written in the Constitution
ii. Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)
or implied by the expressed powers.
Necessary and Proper Clause
, allows the national gov't to use
whenever "convenient and useful."
(regulating immigration, acquiring territory, recognizing diplomats, etc.) are
to the national gov't.
3. Powers Denied to the National Government
Powers may be denied because the power doesn't make sense for a national gov't to have.
4. The States
a. Reserved Powers
b. Powers Denied to the States
any power not given to the national gov't or denied to the states. These are
Some powers are denied to states, like entering a treaty, taxing the national gov't, or doing anything that would violate the national or state constitutions.
5. The Exclusive and Concurrent Powers
Powers given only to the national gov't are exclusive. Powers
shared between the national and state gov't are concurrent
, or shared.
6. The Supremacy Clause
a. The Supremacy Clause
McCulloch v. Maryland
states that the laws of the
't and the
supreme law of the land
McCulloch v. Maryland
upheld the Supremacy Clause
1. Admitting New States
2. Federal Grants
a. Categorical Grants
b. Block Grants
c. Project Grants
1. Full Faith and Credit
3. Privileges and Immunities
Gibbons v. Ogden
-Ask Congress for admission
-Popular vote and constitution approved
Act of Admission
grants are given for a
purpose and have strings attached.
grants are given for
uses, giving states a lot more freedom.
grants are given
based on merit
to states, localities, and even private agencies.
Full Faith and Credit
states that each state has to
recognize the acts
judicial proceedings of every state
provides a legal process by which a
from justice in one state can be
returned to the state
Privileges and Immunities
Clause states that
state can draw
between its own residents and those from other states.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) gave the national government the power to
regulate interstate commerce