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Foundations of American Government

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Noelle Toxqui

on 11 February 2016

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Transcript of Foundations of American Government

I. Principles of Government
A. Government Basics
III. The Constitution
A. Six Basic Principles
IV. Federalism
A. Federalism
II. Origins of American Government
A. Our Political Beginnings
Foundations of American Government
B. Forms of Government
C. Democracy
B. The Coming of Independence
C. The Critical Period
D. Creating the Constitution
E. Ratifying the Constitution
B. Formal Amendment
C. Other Changes
B. National Government and the States
C. Interstate Relations
b. Characteristics of "The State"
a. Government Basics
a. Force Theory
2. Major Political Ideas
b. Evolutionary Theory
c. Divine Right Theory
d. Social Contract Theory
1. Basic Terms
Government:
Institution through which society makes and enforces public policies
1.
Population
People living in a State
2.
Territory
Known and recognized boundaries of land
3.
Sovereignty
Supreme and absolute power within its own territory
4.
Government
Every State is politically organized
Gov'ts were
created out of force
by conquerors
The State
developed
from the
family
Belief that
God
created the State and gave royalty a
“divine right to rule”
Gov'ts were created
voluntarily by free people
1. Who Can Participate
2. Geographic Distribution of Power
3. Relationship Between Legislative & Executive Branches
1. Worth of the Individual
2. Equality of All Persons
3. Majority Rule, Minority Rights

Although decisions are made by majority,
minority rights are protected
4. Necessity of Compromise

Compromise
is needed since each individual is viewed as important
5. Individual Freedom

The
freedom
of the individual can't be used to limit the freedom of others
a.
Democracy
-People (Direct)
-Representatives (Indirect)
b.
Dictatorship
-1 Ruler (Autocracy)
-Few Rulers (Oligarchy)
a.
Unitary Government
-Centralized power
b.
Confederation
-Power given to alliance of independent states
c.
Federalism
- Powers divided between central and local gov'ts
a.
Presidential
Gov't
-Executive branch and legislative branches are separate
b.
Parliamentary
Gov't
-Executive branch is a part of the legislative branch
The dignity and worth of
each individual
is recognized
Equality
of opportunity and equality before the law
Democracy Quick Write
(Write in your warm up notebook)

To what extent do you think the United States holds up the democratic value of equality for all people today? Consider the history of the United States and its path toward equality. What gains do you think we've made? Is there any way we can improve? Write at least 5-6 sentences answering the question.
Unit 1
Government

1. Basic Concepts of Government
2. Landmark English Documents
1. Declaration of Independence
2. Common Features of State Constitutions
1. The Articles of Confederation Structure
2. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
1. The Great Compromise
2. The Three-Fifths Compromise
3. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
4. A "Bundle of Compromises"
a. Virginia Plan
b. New Jersey Plan
c. Connecticut Compromise (The Great Compromise)
1. Federalists
2. Anti-Federalists
a.
Ordered Government
-Local gov'ts w/sheriffs, coroners, grand juries, etc.
b.
Limited Government
-Gov't shouldn't be all-powerful.
c.
Representative Government
-Gov't should serve the people
a.
Magna Carta
(1215) included rights like trial by jury and due process
b.
Petition of Right
(1628) limited the king's powers and declared that kings must follow laws
c.
English Bill of Rights (1689)
included right to a fair trial, no cruel and unusual punishment, etc.
The
Declaration of Independence
announced independence, listed grievances, and described some rights.
Declaration of Independence Assignment
Take out a piece of paper and title it "Declaration of Independence Assignment."

Get a government textbook and read the Declaration of Independence (pg 40-43).

Answer the questions 1-5 and 7 on page 43. Record your answers on the piece of paper you already took out. You must use complete sentences and write in pen.
-Popular Sovereignty
-Limited Government
-Civil Rights and Liberties
-Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
-Unicameral Congress
-No executive or judicial branches
-Each state had one vote
-Independent, sovereign states
-Congress couldn't collect taxes, regulate foreign/interstate commerce, or enforce laws
-9/13 majority to pass any laws
-No national courts
-Bicameral Congress
-
Representation
in Congress
based on population
-Unicameral Congress
-
Equal representation
in Congress
Senate
--->
Equal
representation
House of Rep
resentatives ---> Representation based on
population
-
Slaves
counted as
3/5 of a person
when calculating population for representation and taxation.
There are a ton of less popular compromises too.
Congress could regulate foreign and interstate trade; however, it
couldn't tax the export of goods from any state
.
-Wanted a
strong national
gov't and
weak state
gov'ts
-Pro-Constitution
-Wanted
stronger state
gov'ts and a weaker national gov'ts
-
Anti-Constitution unless
a
Bill of Rights
was
added
1. Popular Sovereignty
Political
power resides in the people
and gov't needs
consent of governed
to rule.
2. Limited Government
Gov't is limited and must
obey the law
3. Separation of Powers
Article 1:
Legislative

Article 2:
Executive
Article 3:
Judicial
4. Checks and Balances
Each branch is
subject to constitutional checks
5. Judicial Review
Power of courts to determine
whether something is
unconstitutional
.
6. Federalism
The
division of power
among a
central
gov't and
state/local
gov'ts
1. Amendment Process
2. Bill of Rights
a.
Proposed by 2/3 of Congress and ratified by 3/4 of each state legislature.
(26/27)
b.
Proposed by 2/3 of Congress and ratified by conventions held in 3/4 of states.
(only 21st Amendment)
First 10 Amendments
added in 1791
1. Basic Legislation
2. Executive Action
3. Court Decisions
4. Party Practices
5. Custom

Laws
can add to the basic outline of gov't that the Constitution provides.
Presidents extend their powers through
executive agreements
and
treaties
.
The Supreme Court reinterprets the Constitution.
Marbury v Madison
(1803) gives the power of
judicial review
.
Political parties aren't in the Constitution. They shape our
election process
.
Unwritten customs
have defined the government, such as having a presidential Cabinet.

(Don't write: Some customs are now written, such as the 22nd Amendment's two-term limit on the presidency.)
1. Federalism Defined
Federalism divides power
s of gov't between the central/
national gov
'
t (Washington, D.C.) and
state
/local
gov
'
t (California).
2. Powers of the National Government
a. Expressed Powers
b. Implied Powers
c. Inherent Powers
Expressed (enumerated) powers
are
written in the Constitution
.
i. Defined
ii. Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)
Implied powers
are
reasonably suggested
or implied by the expressed powers.
The
Necessary and Proper Clause
, or
Elastic Clause
, allows the national gov't to use
implied powers
whenever "convenient and useful."
Inherent powers
(regulating immigration, acquiring territory, recognizing diplomats, etc.) are
automatically given
to the national gov't.
3. Powers Denied to the National Government
Powers may be denied because the power doesn't make sense for a national gov't to have.
4. The States
a. Reserved Powers
b. Powers Denied to the States
The
10th Amendment
gives
states
any power not given to the national gov't or denied to the states. These are
reserved

powers
.
Some powers are denied to states, like entering a treaty, taxing the national gov't, or doing anything that would violate the national or state constitutions.
5. The Exclusive and Concurrent Powers
Powers given only to the national gov't are exclusive. Powers
shared between the national and state gov't are concurrent
, or shared.
6. The Supremacy Clause
a. The Supremacy Clause
b.
McCulloch v. Maryland
The
Supremacy Clause
states that the laws of the
national gov
't and the
Constitution
are "the
supreme law of the land
."
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819)
upheld the Supremacy Clause
.
1. Admitting New States
2. Federal Grants
a. Categorical Grants
b. Block Grants
c. Project Grants
1. Full Faith and Credit
2. Extradition
3. Privileges and Immunities
4.
Gibbons v. Ogden
-Ask Congress for admission
-
Enabling Act
passed
-Popular vote and constitution approved
-
Act of Admission
passed
-President signs
Categorical
grants are given for a
specific
purpose and have strings attached.
Block
grants are given for
broad
uses, giving states a lot more freedom.
Project
grants are given
based on merit
to states, localities, and even private agencies.
The
Full Faith and Credit
Clause
states that each state has to
recognize the acts
,
records
, and
judicial proceedings of every state
.
The
Extradition
Clause

provides a legal process by which a
fugitive
from justice in one state can be
returned to the state
.
The
Privileges and Immunities
Clause states that
no
state can draw
unreasonable distinctions
between its own residents and those from other states.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) gave the national government the power to
regulate interstate commerce
.
Full transcript