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Freddy R. ( Solar System)

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Yorba Student

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of Freddy R. ( Solar System)

The Sun
The Sun is 10 million degrees on its surface
The sun is 92,960,000 miles from Earth
The sun contains 99.85% of the mass in the solar system.
Being so close to the Sun, the daytime temperature on Mercury is scorching - reaching over 400 Degrees Celsius.
There is also no water on the surface of Mercury, it is possible however that there could be water underneath the surface.
Mercury has no atmosphere which means there is no wind or weather to speak of.
Mercury
Earth is the only inner planet (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) to have one large satellite, the Moon. Mars has two very tiny moons. Mercury and Venus have none.
Earth is almost five billion years old, although life (resembling life as we know it) has only existed on the planet for the last 150 million to 200 million years. This means that life has only been present on Earth for only 5%-10% of its lifetime.
The center of the Earth, its core, is molten. This means that it is liquid rock which sometimes erupts onto the surface through volcanic eruptions. This core is 7,500°c, hotter than the surface of the Sun!
Earth
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. Named after the Roman god of war, and often described as the “Red Planet” due to its reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere composed primarily of carbon dioxide.
Olympus Mons, a shield volcano, is 21km high and 600km in diameter. Despite having formed over billions of years, evidence from volcanic lava flows is so recent many scientists believe it could still be active.
Mars is believed to have had water flowing around it like Earth once. It may have had a blue sky too. However, it is unlikely that it had grass, trees and plants like Earth has now.
Mars
Mars has polar caps like Earth, although Mars' polar caps contain mostly frozen carbon dioxide instead of frozen water.
Venus
It takes 243 Earth days to rotate once on its axis. The planet’s orbit around the Sun takes 225 Earth days, compared to the Earth’s 365.
Only the Moon is brighter. With a magnitude of between -3.8 to -4.6 Venus is so bright it can be seen during daytime on a clear day.
The Earth and Venus are very similar in size with only a 638 km difference in diameter, Venus having 81.5% of the Earth’s mass. Both also have a central core, a molten mantle and a crust.
Jupiter
The planet Jupiter is the fifth planet out from the Sun, and is two and a half times more massive than all the other planets in the solar system combined. It is made primarily of gases and is therefore known as a “gas giant”.
It turns on its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes. The rapid rotation flattens the planet slightly, giving it an oblate shape.It turns on its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes. The rapid rotation flattens the planet slightly, giving it an oblate shape.
From our point of view on Earth, it appears to move slowly in the sky, taking months to move from one constellation to another.

Saturn
it is the fifth brightest object in the solar system and is also easily studied through binoculars or a small telescope.
It exists in layers that get denser farther into the planet. Eventually, deep inside, the hydrogen becomes metallic. At the core lies a hot interior.
All are frozen worlds. The largest moons are Titan and Rhea. Enceladus appears to have an ocean below its frozen surface.


Uranus
In 1986, the Voyager 2 spacecraft swept past the planet at a distance of 81,500 km. It returned the first close-up images of the planet, its moons, and rings.
During some parts of its orbit one or the other of its poles point directly at the Sun and get about 42 years of direct sunlight. The rest of the time they are in darkness.
With minimum atmospheric temperature of -224°C Uranus is the coldest planet in the solar system. The upper atmosphere of Uranus is covered by a methane haze. This hides the storms that take place in the cloud decks.


Pluto
For the 76 years between Pluto being discovered and the time it was reclassified as a dwarf planet it completed under a third of its orbit around the Sun.


During Pluto’s elliptical when Pluto is closer to the Sun its surface ice thaws and forms a thin atmosphere primarily of nitrogen with a little methane and carbon monoxide. When Pluto travels away from the Sun the atmosphere then freezes back to its solid state.
This is a later name for the more well known Hades and was proposed by Venetia Burney an eleven year old schoolgirl from Oxford, England.
Neptune
It is not visible to the naked eye and was first observed in 1846. Its position was determined using mathematical predictions. It was named after the Roman god of the sea.
The methane absorbs red light, which makes the planet appear a lovely blue. High, thin clouds drift in the upper atmosphere.
During some parts of its orbit one or the other of its poles point directly at the Sun and get about 42 years of direct sunlight. The rest of the time they are in darkness.
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