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Transcript of DNA/RNA
Every new cell that develops in your body needs an exact copy from its parent cell.
DNA's Two Primary Functions:
To store and use information to direct the activities of the cell.
To copy itself exactly for new cells that are created. Structure of DNA DNA and RNA are polymers, they are compounds of repeating subunits, or monomers.
The repeating subunits in both DNA and RNA are nucleotides.
DNA consists of two long strands, each of which is a chain of nucleotide monomers.
Three Parts of Nucleotide:
A five-carbon sugar molecule call deoxyribose.
A phosphate group
A nitrogen base
3 Nitrogen Bases
Cytosine RNA is a polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers or subunits.
An RNA molecule consists of only one strand of nucleotides instead of two strands of the DNA molecule.
RNA has ribose as its five-carbon sugar.
RNA has the nitrogen base uracil (U). The process of the duplication of DNA is called replication.
Replication begins when an enzyme call DNA helicase attaches to a DNA molecule , moves along the molecule, and "unzips" the two strands of DNA.
DNA helicase acts by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases. The Structure of RNA (Cont) Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a single, uncoiled strand that transmits information from DNA for use during protein synthesis. It serves as a template, or pattern, for the assembly of amino acids during protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a single strand of RNA allowing some complementary bases to pair. tRNA exists in 20 or move varieties, each with the ability to bond to only one specific type of amino acid.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the major constituent of the ribosome.