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Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Qin Dynasty
Transcript of Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Qin Dynasty
Dynasty Shang Dynasty
Qin Dynasty Zhou Dynasty The Qin Dynasty 256-202 BCE Conclusion In conclusion, the Shang dynasy was the oldest dynasty with written records. They widely used bronze and made other advancements. They had powerful kings but were finally conquered which lead China to the Zhou dynasty.
The Zhou dynasty faced new developments of thinking and religion but the fall of the dynasty was due to the alliances and wars over the period of the dynasty.
The Qin dynasty, though one of the shortest, had the most political contributions to China Historical Overview of Ancient China Lalla CC, Kyna L, Stefanie L Introduction References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shang_Dynasty
http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qin/ The Rise The Fall Kings Religion Oracle Bones Military Introduction
-The first dynasty to unite most of China under a single government was the Zhou Dynasty.
-Because of this shift, historians divide the Zhou era into Western Zhou (1027-771 B.C.) and Eastern Zhou (770-221 B.C.).
-Eastern Zhou divides into two subperiods.
-from 770 to 476 B.C
-(475-221 B.C.) Art Government Head of government and religion
Constantly at war with outsiders
Near the end, kings were diviners
There were 30 kings in the Shang dynasty Before these were discovered, the Shang dynasty was only a myth
"Diviners" used turtle shell and cattle scapulae to predict the future
People would go to the diviner with a question
Diviner would crack the shell or bone
Engraver would carve the interpretation in the shell or bone near the specified cracks
Typical questions included:
Sickness etc. Ended when the Duke of Zhou invaded and conquered the capital
Legend stated it was because the king was evil and heaven no longer wanted him to rule
This began the Zhou Dynasty Began with the overthrow of the Xia emperor by the first Shang ruler, Tang
Technically the 2nd dynasty of China, but 1st for which there are written accounts of its existence
Stretched from the western edge of the Yellow River plain to Shangdong in the east
Main strength laying in modern day Henan province in the north
Several capitals throughout its power but only one has been firmly identified, Yin The Shang dynasty is the first for which historians have found written evidence. It was very important as it started the bronze age, as well as invented the oracle bone. (Rise and fall, kings, religion, art, government, military, economy)
Today we will discuss the structure of the Zhou dynasty the struggles, and as well as Confucius, Doaism and Legalism.
The Qin Dynasty was one of the shortest dynasties in Ancient China, however it was considered THE first dynasty and the one with the most political contributions that include some policies that are still used today. Intro continued -The Shang dynasty was overthrown in 1027 BCE by the Zhou who invaded from the valley of Wei River.
-The rule over China nearly 800 years
-Classical period Territory -The Zhou established a feudal state
-Enlarged the extent of their territory
-First to build walls
Improved their techniques of warfare by inventing the cross-bow and replacing chariots with cavalry Cultural and Economic developments -The Shang system of writing was refined
-Agricultural productivity increased
-the ox-drawn plough
-large scale irrigation systems were built
-Rainfall in the north
-Aided by the building of canals to link others
-Introduction of copper coins Difficulties for the Zhou -Difficulty to maintain central control
-Territory = city-state
-Walled towns More trouble.... -An alliance of rebels and nomadic tribes
-Lost power Warring States -By 481 BCE the wars among the rival rulers had become so numerous that an interval known as the Warring Period
-All three schools of thought sought the means to achieve a peaceful and orderly society. They used a lot of bronze in their weapons
Bronze or leather helmets
The chariot first appeared in China during the reign of Wu Ding
The king would lead their army of several thousand men
Nobles were expected to be involved in the military
Aristocrats and other state rulers had to contribute money and supply necessary equipment and armor
Commoners were often forced to become laborers for the war campaign or soldiers Worshiped "Shang Ti" (supreme god who ruled over all other gods)
Gods were represented by natural forces (moon, sun, wind etc.)
They believed in the afterlife
Kings were buried with hundreds of people and horses to accompany him in the afterlife
They were also buried with ornaments such as jade, which the Shang may have believed to protect against decay
Gave sacrifices to:
The High God
Nature powers like the sun and mountain powers
Former lords or important ancestors
Dynastic ancestresses such as the concubines of a past emperor Well known for their use of pottery (pots and vessels)
Used bronze for art more often than for weapons (jewelry, bells, bowls)
Jade carvings (dragons, fish, tigers, birds)
Metal instruments (drums, cymbals)
Oldest chinese writing form developed (symbols, pictographs, ideographs) Monarchy in which the king was both lawmaker and judge
He ruled by force, and anyone who disobeyed the king's laws would be killed immediately by his soldiers
Whichever clan had the biggest army would rule the civilization until a clan with a better army came along
The king ruled 200 to 300 clans within his territory
Other nobles kept watch over smaller regions within the territory
When the king died, his closest relative would take the thrown Confucius -Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history.
-The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity.
He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", an early version of the Golden Rule. Daoism -Daoism is one of China’s major religions indigenous to the country.
-The primary belief is in learning and practicing “The Way” (Dao) which is the ultimate truth to the universe.
-Also known as Taoism
-Daoism traces its roots to 6th Century BC Chinese philosopher Laozi wrote the iconic book Dao De Jing on the tenets of the Dao.
-Daoism grew quickly from 200-700 AD,
-Where more rituals and practices emerged.
-During this period, Daoism faced competition from the growing spread of Buddhism which came to China via traders and missionaries from India.
-Unlike Buddhism, Daoists do not believe that life is suffering.
-Daoism believes that life is generally happy but that it should be lived with balance and virtue.
- The two religions often butted heads when both vied to become the official religion of the Imperial Court.
-Daoism did become the official religion of the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD), but in later dynasties it was supplanted by Buddhism.
-During the Cultural Revolution from 1966-1976, many Daoist temples were destroyed.
-Following economic reforms in the 1980s many have been restored and the number of Daoists have grown. There are currently 25,000 Daoists priests and nuns in China and over 1,500 temples.
-Many ethnic minorities in China also practice Daoism. Legalism -In Chinese history Legalism was a philosophy emphasizing strict obedience to the law system.
-It was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States period.
-It was a utilitarian political philosophy that did not address higher questions like the purpose and nature of life.
The school's most famous proponent and contributor Han Fei|Han Fei
believed that a ruler should use the following three tools to govern his subjects:
Fa : The law code must be clearly written and made public. All people under the ruler were equal before the law. Laws should reward those who obey them and punish accordingly those who dare to break them. Thus it is guaranteed that actions taken are systematically predictable. In addition, the system of law, not the ruler, ran the state, a statement of rule of law. If the law is successfully enforced, even a weak ruler will be strong.
Shu: Special tactics and "secrets" are to be employed by the ruler to make sure others don't take over control of the state. Especially important is that no one can fathom the ruler's motivations, and thus no one can know which behavior might help them get ahead, other than following the 法, or laws.
Shi: It is the position of the ruler, not the ruler himself or herself, that holds the power. Therefore, analysis of the trends, the context, and the facts are essential for a real ruler. The Fall The Zhou were eventually conquered by the Qin Most political contributions to China
Qin defeated Zhou and warring states
called himself Shi Huangdi Political Developments Cultural Developments Technological Developments Feudal system no longer effective
Division of land
Neutralized and centralized government powers
Created a single law code
Construction of the Great Wall Burning of philosophy and history books
more time studying means less time growing food
Standardization of calligraphy Standardization in measurement system, taxation, coinage (currency)
building of roads and canals Single law code
spy system "A thousand may die so that a million may live." The End... his successors?
start of the Han Dynasty Discoveries later on... army of hundreds of thousands of terracotta warriors, horses, and servants