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DTP2016 - Development and institutions (wk2)
Transcript of DTP2016 - Development and institutions (wk2)
Poor, pro-democracy citizens vs rich, anti-democracy elites
Everybody acts rationally (main difference with the structuralist approach)
Only two regimes are possible: democracy or non-democracy
Democracy benefits the poor, non-democracy benefits the rich
The two parties are in conflict: if someone wins the other loses
The threat of revolution might suffice to push the rich to relinquish power
But the rich may also decide to fight back if they think they lose too much
Class struggle and conditional change 1
Acemoglu and Robinson 2006
What are the factors (i.e. independent variables) making the threat of revolution credible?
Strength of civil society
Structure of the economy (are the rich landowners or industrialists?)
The role of the middle class (a third actor in the game): pro-elite?
Class struggle and conditional change 2
Acemoglu and Robinson 2006
Democracy comes from a combination of political struggle between various sections of the society and structural economic change introduced by capitalism. Two structural changes caused by capitalism:
Strengthening of the working class
Weakening of the landowners
Unintended social consequences:
Pro-democratic collective action becomes easier
Class alliances might be needed to achieve change (petty bourgeoisie, middle class)
P&L 1997, p. 158
"Economic development is conducive to democracy to the extent that it, first, creates a large, educated, and articulate middle class of people who are accustomed to thinking for themselves and, second, transforms people's values and motivations" (Inglehart and Welzel 2009, p. 8)
Key concept: ‘survival values’ vs ‘self expression values’
An illustration: traditional apprenticeship systems and contingent individual emancipation in West Africa
Problems with this approach
- Are values uniformly distributed in a society?
- How values translate into behaviours? Who are the agents of change?
- How exactly are values connected to broader structural changes?
Can you visually establish a correlation between GDP per capita and ‘freedom’ (as defined by the Freedom House)?
Institutions and Development
Understanding development as long term institutional changes in the economy and in the society
Are democracies richer?
GDP per capita
--> CPs as 'catalysts' making democratisation more likely
Which direction does the relation goes?
From Development to Democracy
What are institutions?
Extractive institutions v inclusive institutions (A&G 2012)
In colonial Latin America, the state focused on coercing indigenous peoples. In neither type of society was there a level playing field or an unbiased legal system. In North Korea, the legal system is an arm of the ruling Communist Party, and in Latin America it was a tool of discrimination against the mass of people. We call such institutions, which have opposite properties to those we call inclusive, extractive economic institutions—extractive because such institutions are designed to extract incomes and wealth from one subset of society to benefit a different subset.
Inclusive economic institutions create inclusive markets, which not only give people freedom to pursue the vocations in life that best suit their talents but also provide a level playing field that gives them the opportunity to do so. Those who have good ideas will be able to start businesses, workers will tend to go to activities where their productivity is greater, and less efficient firms can be replaced by more efficient ones.
Complex social forms governing / shaping peoples' behaviours
Public rules of action and thoughts
Big and small
Legal and informal
Economic, political, cultural, religious etc.
Transparent / opaque
Fundamental question: How do institutions change