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Chapter 9: The New Republic 1789-1800
Transcript of Chapter 9: The New Republic 1789-1800
Section 1: Launching the New Government
The New Government
The President's Cabinet
The purpose of the cabinet:
Advise the president
Run their prospective depts
5 original Depts
Dept of State
Dept of Treasury
Dept of War
How many executive depts are in the cabinet today?
and the heads of
15 executive departments
— the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs, as well as the Attorney General.
The Judiciary Act
1 Chief Justice of the Supreme court
5 Associate Justices
Set up a system of district & circuit courts
Decisions made in these lower courts could be sent to the S.C.
John Jay was the 1st Chief Justice
How many Supreme Court Justices are there today?
Supreme Court Justices today.
John Glover Roberts, Jr.
Who is Chief Justice today?
Hamilton was the Secretary of the Treasury
Plan was to create new bonds to pay off the debt from old bonds. When the economy stabilized he would then pay off debt form new bonds.
He also wanted the govt to pay off both state and federal debts
Madison Opposes Hamilton
Plan rewards speculators- people who made fortune off poverty of bond owners during the Revolution.
southern states already paid off debts.
Make both Southerners & Northerners happy
Northerners- pay off state debts
southerners- move the nation's capital to the south.
Between Virginia and Maryland
District of Columbia
Building Up the Economy
Functions of the National Bank
Govt deposited $ made through taxes in the national bank.
The Bank then issued paper $
Paper $ was used for:
making loans to farmers
ecouraged growth of economy
pay govt bills
build new capital
fund army & navy
Hamilton Tries to Protect American Industry
Protective Tariff on imported goods
high tax meant to discourage the purchase of foriegn goods and encourage the purchase of domestic (made in America) goods
have many factories
supported the tariff
made them rich
Purchased goods from over-seas
did not want the tariff
cost them too much $
The Whiskey Rebellion
Farmers hated the tax on liquor because they converted excess corn into whiskey
Hamilton wanted to increase the amount of $ in the national treasury.
Washington sends 15,000 militia men to stop protesting of the alcohol tax.
Illustrated that violent protests would not be tolerated
There are 9 Supreme Court Justices today.
Section 2: A Policy Of Neutrality
Revolution in France
Many Americans Supported the French Revolution because they
knew what it felt like
to be ruled by a king.
Support for Revolution became divided because of the violent nature the Revolution takes.
King & Queen were beheaded
Reign of Terror- tens of thousands of French were killed.
Other countries in Europe were afraid that revolutionary ideas would spread to their countries, so they sent armies to over power the revolutionaries.
A treaty made between America and France during the American Revolution allowed France to use American ports to supply ships, thus aiding their attack on the British. Allowing this action would officially end American Neutrality, so Washington denied France's request for acknowledgment of the treaty.
Both Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed what side America should support in regards to the fighting between France and Britain.
They were our allies during the Revolution
Britain was our enemies/always will be
They were valuable economic partners
Did not have to honor treaty because King Loius XVI was killed during the French Revolution.
Washington chose to remain neutral by passing the Neutrality Proclomation of 1793.
America was not strong enough for another war
He did not want to get involved in Europe's wars
It would be too costly
The Neutrality Act forbabe Americans from aiding Britain or France in anyway.
An Unpopular Treaty
Merchants who ignored the Neutrality Proclomation and traded with both Britain and France were at risk.
Britain ignoring the rights of neutral ships, seized over 250 American ships trading in the French West Indes. This angered Americans to the point where they called for war.
Washington sent John Jay to Britain to create a treaty.
Britain must pay for the ships they seized in 1793.
Americans had to pay debts from before the Revolution.
Britain had to give up remaining forts in the Ohio River Valley
Treaty did not protect neutral merchant ships.
Americans were angry, feeling like they were giving up more than the British.
Washington accepted the treaty in hopes that it would avoid a war.
In his farewell address, Washington gives advice to the American nation.
Be careful not to become involved in the affairs of Europe.
Such involvment/alliances may pull the United States into future wars.
Limit interactions with Europe to involve only economics.
Section 3: The Rise of Political Parties
Opposing Views create the first political parties.
Strong Central Govt
Manufacturing, shipping & trade (
Loose interpretation of Constitution
alliance with Britain
Democratic Republicans (Republicans)
Strong state govts
Strict interpretation of Constitution
opposed national bank
Opposed protective tariff
Election of 1796
Politcal parties played a major role in the election of the 2nd President under the Constitution.
President- Thomas Jefferson
VP- Aaron Burr
President- John Adams
VP- Thomas Pinckney
Under the Constitution the person who won the most electoral votes became President. The person with the second highest amount of votes became Vice President.
John Adams a Federalist
came in second and won the
President and Vice President from two different political parties allowed tensions to remain high.
In our election process today each presidential candidate chooses their running mate.
The 2nd President
Problems with France
France objects to Jay's Treaty
Begin seizing ships in the West Indes
Americans call for war with France
Adams sends diplomats to try and avoid a war with France
The American diplomats did not get the chance to meet with France's foreign minister Talleyrand, instead he sent 3 secret agents with instructions to
$10 million loan to France
Americans were outraged
known as the XYZ Affair
Adams does not ask Congress to declae war. Instead he strengthens navy and France is impressed by our show of strength. Talleyrand agrees to no longer attack merchant ships in the West Indes
Federalist Party Splits
Hamilton wanted a war with France
would weaken the Reuplicans who supported France
Force the US to bollster the army & navy increasing the strength of the federal govt.
Adams did not give into to Hamilton's demand for war
Hamilton and his supporters formed the High Federalists
Alien & Sedition Acts
allowed the President to expel any immigrant thought to be dangerous to America
it became harder for immigrants to become citizens
had to live in the country for 14 years
increased from 5 years
Federalists supported the Alien Act
sedition act outlawed criticizing the govt
Republican were outraged
Violated the Constitution's 1st Amendment
The Rights of States
Jefferson stated that the states had the right to nullify (cancel) a law passed by the federal govt.
1789 & 1799
Kentucky & Virginia
passed resolutions stating that each state has the right to determine if a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional
Election of 1800
Republicans won the popular vote due to the split in the Federalist party
Republicans supported Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice President
The electoral college tallied 73 votes for each man
At that time the electoal college did not vote separately for President and Vice President
According to the Constitution a tie in the electoral vote who go the House of representatives, but initially each candidate recieved 36 votes from the house.
After 4 days Jeffeson won the vote of the House and Burr became his Vice President
After the election Congress ratified the 12th Amendment, requiring electors to vote separately for President and Vice President
Foolowing the 1800 election Federalist influence weakened as they had fewer seats in Congress.
They were further weakened in 1804 when their leader Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr