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Principles of games design 3

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Mark Hutcheon

on 14 March 2013

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Transcript of Principles of games design 3

This presentation will cover the
following topics (not in a particular order):
The concepts of storytelling
Types of storytelling
Evolution of animation
Visual styles of animation
Styles of gameplay Principles of
games design Evolution of games design The Concepts of storytelling Storytelling is a method of communicating an event through words, image or sounds (speech), and is used in entertainment or education in more modern times. The earliest form of storytelling is found in cave drawings from prehistoric humans that used them to tell others of stories that had taken place, they did this because they couldn't speak. Speech is the most used method of storytelling
and is used on a day to day basis by billions Speech Speech is important to storytelling because its the easiest way to tell story's, it allows people to share their experiences with each other with minimal effort. Myths and Legends are another early method of storytelling that uses a combination of speech and images invented by the ancient Greeks to tell story's of mythological gods and creatures. Myths and Legends Myths and legends are sometimes heavily featured in games like 'Legendary' and 'Skyrim' Legendary Skyrim Speech is used in many ways, like in opera or pantomimes that needs speech to convey the story to wide audiences. Applications of speech Pantomimes Opera Written storytelling The use of storytelling communicated through writing has been around for thousands of years, the earliest recorded piece of writing was the bible written over 3500 years ago that tells the stories of the religion of Christianity. And is famously used in the books written by William Shakespeare, these books have also been conveyed through performances using speech. Shows a story though a series of images These games both rely on mythology massively due to having almost all enemies in the games being taken from some kind of mythology. This is where people act/ sing dramatically to instrumentals and music. This is the communication through speech, gestures and facial expressions. And is traditionally used in campfire stories When video games first came about in 1972 they where extremely simple due to limitations in technology meaning that only small production teams were necessary, but due to technology enhancing video games are becoming increasingly advanced to the point where now games need massive production teams with hundreds of people. The games graphics are one of the biggest selling points so its not surprising that developers want their game to look at its best. Graphics have also evolved over time due to this constant need for improvement to make games increasingly realistic. Evolution of Graphics Halo Combat evolved is the first game in the halo series and it shows the standard of graphics when it came out in 2001. The jump in graphics from Halo CE to Halo 2 are substantial in comparison and shows how the graphics had evolved in the gap between 2001 and 2004. In Halo 3 the graphics were impressive and showed how the graphics had progressed between Halo 2 and 3 which came out in 2007. Halo 4 in the newest game in the franchise that was released in 2012, clearly shows how well graphics have progressed over the years and has set a new benchmark for other games to follow. Examples of 3D models without textures Evolution of gameplay Through the years video game developers have evolved the gameplay of their games through player feedback of other games, not long after video games came about the animations and controls seemed clunky, but with better games engines and other technology gameplay for present games are smooth and well constructed. This is Super Mario Bros from 1985 that runs at a lower FPS so the quality of the gameplay is decreased to the point that you can see the individual frames of movement. This is Super Mario Bros from 2012, it has a much higher frame rate that allows designers to make the movement more realistic than older Mario games to make a better quality of game for players. More
Game-play adaption Game adaption is when a new game of a series is released with more or improved content than the previous. For example: Dead or alive series The first Dead or alive games have little in the way of moves, each character only had a little over 30 moves in total. In the newest game 'Dead or Alive 5' each character has over 120 different moves that makes the fighting in the more complex. As well as the extremely remastered graphics, the games overall game-play from fighting to the menu interface has been completely improved. Visual styles of games There are many different types of games styles, and most are used to portray the genre of the game. Dark, sinister and detailed games are styles usually used in horror/ thriller games because it creates Immersion, atmosphere and suspense used in the 'Fear' and 'Dead space' series. Cel Shade Cel shade is a type of non-photo realistic rendering designed to make a model to look as if it has been hand-drawn, and is often used to make a game look as if its a comic book or cartoon. Cel shading is heavily used in games like 'The walking dead' and 'Borderlands' Borderlands The walking dead Dead space Fear Narrative storytelling This is where a voice over narrates the story over film, a series of images, gameplay or cinematic cut scenes. An example of this would be in the game 'Little Big Planet' were the famous voice actor/ presenter Steven Fry narrates the story for the game as well as the dialogue for the tutorials. The game Fable also features an in game narrator that gives you useful tips and tells you that you have something to do. The game Metro 2033 has a narrator that tells the next part of the story during the loading screen and is voiced by the character you play as. Videos and film Videos and films are another popular method of storytelling that uses many other methods to communicate the story, for example a film may use a narrator (in The Shawhank redemption) and or with written text (in Star wars) 8-bit is an art style used in games that is used in such games like: 8-Bit This is one of the earliest Mega-man games were the art style is 8-bit. This is Mario from one of the earliest Mario games that was created using 8-bit technology. The infamous Nyan cat was a very popular internet phenomenon that uses the
8-bit style. Drawn/ roto-scope Some games use the unique and diverse style of being almost as if they have been hand drawn which is used in textures for models and animated cut scenes. Hotel Dusk: room 215 is a game that uses roto-scoping for the animation of characters. This is the borderlands prolouge that uses the hand draw style to get the desired effect. Alice: madness returns is another game that uses the drawn effect. The Hand drawn and roto-scoping style is commonly used as a visual aid to a voice over that is telling a story of the past or future. Photo-realism Photo-realism is a visual style that is achieved by highly detailed models and textures that are close real life. The game crysis 3 is a game that strives on the realistic graphics it has and is a major selling point. It achieves this by using the cry engine 3 that was specicailly made for the game. Halo 4's graphics during the cut scenes and cinematic at times can be mistaken for live action due to the high resolution and detail that has been give to the models and textures. Types of gameplay There are many different types of gameplay in games and each is very important, it'll decide how the game is played and how the game will work. Scroller games are an older but still popular type of game, they consist of a 2D or 3D character moving across a flat horizontal/ vertical path. Scroller games Limbo is a side scroller that uses a unique art style. You as the player controls a silhouette that needs to traverse and series of puzzle to save you sister. Rayman is another side scroller that requires the player to overcome obstacles and monsters to reach the end of the level. RPG (Role playing game) In RPG's the player takes the role of a character and controls his/ her path that they take. There are two type of RPGs, the first is the linear RPG were the player can control the character and customize their gear and appearance but is on a fix path, the second is an open world RPG which is the same as the first one but the player can decide where they want to go and how they go about doing it. Skyrim and Fallout 3 are examples of open world RPGs. Dragon age and the witcher are examples of linear RPGs. RTS (Real Time Strategy) In an RTS game the player controls a character or multiple characters, for example in the game Sims you controls a family of people but in Supreme commander the player can control up to a 1000 units a time. Supreme commander Sims FPS (First person shooters) First person shooters are games in which you as the player shooter other players or AIs to win the match or continue with the mission. Call of Duty is one of the most famous FPS game available. Another famous FPS is the game Battlefield. TPS (Third Person Shooter) A TPS is the same as a first person shooter but is played through a third- person perspective. Gears of war is one of the most famous third person shooters. Binary domain is another third person shooter that was popualr after its release. The upcoming game Tomb raider is a another third person shooter that is largely anticipated by most type of gamers. Objectification of women in video games In the games industry its typically known that female characters are created to add sex appeal for players like in such game as Lollipop Chainsaw. This games main selling point is sexual appeal and innuendos because players like to have experience these games. Women in games now have been given more masculine roles to try and separate the stereotypes of women just being eye candy. In the new game Tomb raider you play as Lara croft who grows into a very dominant heroine that is portrayed as a strong, confident individual. The stereotypes of racism The evolution of females in games has progressed rapidly over recent years due to more female games designers going into the industry allowing for more diverse characters in video games. Though predominantly the games industry is a male industry so most ideas for characters and general designs were created by males which can explain the content in certain games. This problem occurred in the game Resident
Evil 5, the game was set in Africa were the there is a substantial percentage of ethnic people which meant that the majority of the enemies that the player fights are of an ethnic background. The game developers had to reconsider the types of enemies after the game was banned from being released, it later fixed the issues and released it to the public. Race stereotypes in video games are a sensitive area due to trying to make the game realistic but at the same time not going too over the top. Narrative storytelling in a game like this is good because it already feels as if your part of a story so the narrator fits in perfectly. The narrative loading scenes in this game add to the effect of being part of a story because he talks as if he is reading from a diary so you know that the games events had already happen. The game fable has a narrative voice that guides the play as if its someone watching over the player, but in the cinematic scenes the narrator speaks as with reading from a book. This style is also used as illustrations for books or comics. Due to there being hundreds of different styles of drawing it allows games to have their own unique style. Back in the 80's when Mario and mega man were released most games where like this due to the lack in technology. Even though it was released in 2011on YouTube it uses the the 8-bit style because its simple. Call of Duty genuinely is a fast paced game that takes place on enclosed maps and is an example of a well constructed FPS game, which is probably why its so popular. Battlefield is much larger scale FPS that takes on wide open - semi open battle grounds that includes vehicles. Supreme commander is an RTS of a massive scale that allows up to 8 players in a game at once, and is popular to people that have played it. but not to the general community due to it being barely advertised. Sims is a series of games and add-ons that allow the player to simulate a living environment, which includes families furniture, other house hold items. The player has to make sure the family is fed and is kept healthy. Limbo Rayman Graphics from the 90's Graphics past 2008 The portrayal of women and the unnecessary additional physics for women in this game can be a bit over exaggerated, Which leads on to the next topic. Standard of graphics Within most games it is the main key characters or locations that get most of the focus meaning that the less key features can be of a lower standard. This is shown in in the game Skyrim when you climb to the top of a mountain and look at at the textures and you can clearly see that they have been stretched to fit the mesh. This lower standard of visual graphics is there because the developer new that area of the game would be the least notice so they didn't make it to a high standard to save time and resources. Feedback Interfaces Almost every game has some sort of feedback interface that tells the player information like vitals signs, speed and ammo that is shown on the HUD (Heads Up Display) of the player. An example of this would be the game series Mass effect, during the game the player will lose health and this is indicated in the vital signs menu on the players HUD. Another example of a feedback interface is in the driving game series Forza. In this game the player drives a car which has a speed gauge on the HUD when your in Third-person, but in first-person the player can see a realistic speed gauge in the dashboard of the car. Full motion video A full motion videos in games is a games cinematic cut scenes between levels or during a level after a significant event happens. A cut scene is when the player loses control of the character they are playing as and have to view a scene were the animations or events are scripted, these cut scenes are usually used to give information to the story or to show an action packed scene that wouldn't be possible while the game is in play. During these cut scenes due to less information demanding events taking place the game and use more improved textures that makes the in cut scene graphics superior to in game graphics. This is the character Yuna from Final fantasy 10. This image shows the comparison between in game graphics and cut scene graphics and to see how much better graphics are during cut scenes. In game Cut scene Graphics comparison Single player/ multi-player In most AAA games that have been released within the last couple of years have had a single player and a multi-player. The single player of a game is usually for the story aspect of the game to tell the storyline solo because its more immersive when your not being distracted by another player, and also it allows the player to go at their own pace. The muli-player of a game is usually not story orientated, it may have aspects that are ralateable to the games story. Multi-player in games is commonly goal directed, meaning the player have to work against or together to complete a task. Single player Multiplayer Tomb raider Omnipresence Omnipresence (also known as ghost/ spectator mode) is a style of view were there are no restrictions of movement and the player has no playable character as an avatar and is invisible to other players. This style of view is used in creative game were the player has to build or create something, it is also used as a spectator so that player can watch NPC's or other players without getting in the way, as well it is used in games as a after death spectator so that you can still watch the game even after dieing. . Summary In summary storytelling in games is extremely important due to it being the most important aspect to consider when making one, this is because the whole story needs to make sense with any loop holes to make it as fluent as possible, a back story accentual makes a game. Genre is really important to a game due to it being a main selling point to whether a person will buy it or not, for example someone who likes an FPS game may no like a RTS. The style of the game is another very important aspect because it informs player of what type of game they are buying, for example someone way not want a horror game like amnesia but may want a game like Left 4 dead, both are horror but amnesia is more of a thriller than a action shooter. Graphics for some people is one of the most important parts of a game due to the enhanced visual styles and impressive scenery it gives games more immersion for players which increases the gameplay of the game. Feedback interfaces are important to gameplay to help the games immersion because if the game doesn't have a feedback interface that has the same style of the game it'll look out of place making it lose immersion and visual value.
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