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Disability and Inclusion in Sport and PE

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Frank Herold

on 20 January 2014

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Transcript of Disability and Inclusion in Sport and PE

What is it?
Legal Requirement
Adapting and
modifying PE and Sports
At Leisure Centres for instance

Staff are frequently untrained in disability issues and as a consequence frequently:

Lack confidence in providing sport/leisure services (fear factor)
Have a lack of understanding about disability sport and its real-life workings
Lack understanding of people’s needs
Think the disabled person is a ‘Health and safety risk’
Have a patronising approach (Devas, 2003; French and Hainsworth, 2001; Thompson and Emira, 2011)
First Impressions - are you seeing the disability before the person?
Stereotyping - are you grouping that person into a category?
Shape of body - disabled people are not always a conventional body shape
Clothes - there is often a reason why particular styles of clothes or footwear are worn.
Muscular Dystrophy
• Generic name for neuromuscular (nervous and muscle system) disorders that are characterized by the progressive weakening and wasting of an individual’s voluntary muscles.
• The muscle is replaced by fatty and connective tissue
• Victims may lose the ability to walk, speak, and ultimately breathe. Unfortunately, there is no cure.
Symptoms = 2-6 years of age.
Eventually involves all muscles.
Survival beyond 20 years of age is rare.
Symptoms = two to sixteen years
Closely resemble Duchenne’s
However, less severe and life expectancy is usually into the fifties or sixties
PEIT (Physical Education Integration Team)
Formal and informal observations based on:
motor skills and abilities
physical fitness
perceptual/sensory motor skills
GPE skills
overall student behaviour
Instructional modifications
same outcomes
changes in the way that content is taught
Modified curriculum different learning outcomes to suit special needs
Important considerations:
changes are challenging yet allow students to participate successfully
should not affect the learning of other students too much
should not pose a danger for other students
should not cause "undue burden" on the PE teacher
Basic principles for modifying games:
"Games are not sacred; kids are"
not all games are for everyone
games can be modified to include anyone
when possible, include student with disability when making decisions
get input from classmates without disabilites before creating and implementing modifications
provide choice
physical assisistance is acceptable
try to play multiple games simultaneously with some games following regulation rules and others having modifications
Remedies/adaptation ideas for general physical education teachers
Benefits of Inclusive Physical Education
Allows increased opportunity to make friends and find companionship with other students
Stereotypes are eliminated as both groups of students continuously interact with each other, dispelling the notion the students with disabilities are special/ different and thus people that should be "pitied, teased or feared."
Boost their self-esteem and confidence as they realize that they are very capable and simply students with different abilities.
Spina bifida
Results from an underdeveloped spinal cord during pregnancy
Can result in paralysis
Bone and joint deformities
placing student with disability near teacher
demonstrate liberally
provide oral prompts
Peer teaching
cooperative learning
Different levels of modification
mild disability: meeting regular curriculum objectives but at a lower level. (I.e. standing closer to target)
moderate disability: embedding unique objectives within general curriculum (I.e. learning wheelchair operating skills within the regular transport skills unit)
severe disabilities: student works seperately; inclusion is initiated by having students without disabilites take turns to participate in the alternative activity
Armstrong, D. (2010, February 25). Inclusive Physical Education. (B. Hofer, Interviewer)

Adapted physical education. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from PE central: The premeir website for health and physical education: http://www.pecentral.org/adapted/adaptedmenu.html

Block, M. E. (1994). A Teacher's Guide to Including Students with Disabilities in Regular Physical Education. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Block, M. E. (2007). A teacher's guide to including students with disabilites in general physical education (Third ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Fitzgerald, H. and Kirk, D. (2009)'Identity work: young disabled people, family and sport', Leisure Studies, 28: 4, 469 —488

HMSO (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office) (1995). Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Retrieved from www.opsi.gov.uk/
HMSO (2001). Special Educational Needs and Disability Act. Retrieved from www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2001/20010010
HMSO (2005). Disability Discrimination Act 2005. Retrieved from www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2005/20050013

Smith, B. (2010) Dialogism, Monologism, and Boundaries: Some Possibilities for Disability Studies and Interdisciplinary Research. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 6 (3), p.35.

Smith, B. and Sparkes, A. (2004) Men, sport, and spinal cord injury: an analysis of metaphors and
narrative types, Disability and Society, 19, 6, 509–612.

The adaptive dimension. (2001, Jan. 30). The adaptive dimension_Frequently asked questions. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2010, from Sasketchewan schools and school divisions: http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/adapthandbook/faq/faq.html

University of Maryland Medicine. (2003, May 14). Types of Muscular Dystrophy and Neuromuscular Diseases. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from University of Maryland Website: http://www.umm.edu/nervous/musctype.htm
It is about:
what people CAN do
plotting their potential, and giving them a safe framework in which to develop and to progress
having high, but realistic expectations
a person giving his or her best. Disability is no barrier to this!
Sport is for All
Paralympic and Olympic Records
Disability and Inclusion
in Sport and PE
Re-cap our position
Disability as socially constructed
Impairment is about our bodies' ways of working and any implications that holds for our lives. Disability is about the reaction and impact of the outside world on our particular bodies (Crow, 1996).

The society –i.e. the environment, social systems and peoples attitudes and prejudices –is what disable people (Fitzgerald, 2009; French & Hainsworth, 2001; The National Coaching Foundation, 2005)
Models of Disability
“This [social model] was the explanation I had sought for years. Suddenly what I had always known, deep down, was confirmed. It wasn't my body that was responsible for all my difficulties, it was external factors, the barriers constructed by the society in which I live. I was being dis-abled my capabilities and opportunities were being restricted by prejudice, discrimination, inaccessible environments and inadequate support. Even more important, if all the problems had been created by society, then surely society could un-create them. Revolutionary!” (Crow, 1996)
The Social Model
The Medical Model
Disability is the result of a physical/ mental/ cognitive condition, intrinsic to the individual

Disabilities have a biological cause. They are intrinsic to the individual.

Problems faced by disabled people are seen as a direct result of their impairment (Brittain, 2004)
Promotes a negative, disempowered image of people with disabilities

Lets society of the hook

Blames the disabled persons for their problems (Brittain, 2004)
“We exist at a time when we aren’t sure
what to say,” asserts British Comedian David
Baddiel, speaking about “categories of people”
on Ricky Gervais: New Hero of Comedy, Channel 4, 2008
Eamonn [pseudonym]: I don’t know how
you manage to do this research listening
to me all day. It must be really depressing
for you. Is it?
Brett: Sometimes it can be. But often it’s
not. Like I said, it’s something I really
believe in. And anyhow you do make me
laugh sometimes.
Eamonn: Yeah, yeah. For the last hour
I’ve been talking about how depressed
I’ve been recently. Hardly a fun afternoon
[both laugh].
Brett: For some maybe, but I do know
too just how you feel. I’ve lived with depression, been there, at rock bottom, like
you. So I know how you feel. I can identify I suppose is what I’m trying to say. I
know what it feels like to be depressed,
and when you talk about how you feel,
I feel I enter into your world. Anyhow,
you’ll, I’m sure you’ll get better. I know
the future looks bad, but you will get better. You’ll ride this out. You will be fine.
By yourself you’ll get out the other side.
Eamonn: But maybe I won’t. Maybe I
won’t get out of this. It’s not easy when
you’re disabled, alone, and down in the
dumps. It’s not. Nobody knows what the
future holds
Interviewing in Disability Research
Dialogic and Monologic Speech
Smith (2010)
Brett: You’re right Eamonn. You’re right;
you just don’t know what will happen.
And I have no idea what it’s like being
you. I really have no idea how you feel
and am out of order telling you things
will be fine. They may not be. I don’t
know what the future has in store for you
or me. I suppose I wanted to close the gap
between us, know you better, empathise,
but I’ve overstepped the boundary. I can’t
ever know what its like to live in your
Eamonn: And I can’t ever know what its
like to live in yours. At least we’re talking
though, and I’ve enjoyed it. It’s been good
today; it’s been good being with you. And
you never know, someone might learn
from what I’ve said today and over the
past year. They don’t have to be disabled
either. We’re all dependent on each other.
Mobility impairment
Visual Impairment
Speech impairment
Hearing impairment
Learning disability
Downs Syndrom
Cerebral Palsy
Mental health challenge
Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder
Impairment Range
Biopsychosocial Model
More holistic perspective of disability
Recognises the inter-relatedness of psychological, biological and socilogical
dimensions of disability
Emphasises that narrow focus on any one of these aspects might do disabled people
a dis-service.
For instance, if you minimise the potential impact of the biological dimensions of disability, why would you pay disability benefits?
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy
Vol. 10, No. 1, February 2005, pp. 41– 59
The familiar hustle and bustle, murmuring and giggling that follow the instruction ‘Get
into teams’ are always accompanied by the predictable ’Aw Sir, do we have to? Or ‘No
way are we having him’ as the games teachers allocates me to a random team, rather
like a spare piece of luggage that no one can be bothered to carry. (Jackson, 2002, p. 129)
The lens of disability allows us to make problematic the socially constructed nature of
sport and once we have done so, opens us to alternative constructions, and solutions.
(DePauw, 1997, p. 428)
We all have bodies, but not all bodies are equal, some matter more than others: some are,
quite frankly, disposable. (Braidotti, 1996, p. 136)
Inclusion Spectrum
One particularly potent theme influencing young disabled people’s views of sport and propensity to participate is that of family support.
Family Support
Fitzgerald, H. and Kirk, D. (2009)'Identity work: young disabled people, family and sport', Leisure Studies, 28: 4, 469 —488
In modern society constantly reconstructed and renegotiated
Growth of dual earning families
Change of gendered roles
Presence and absence of members
Parental roles
Specific circumstances of families with disabled children (Traditional gender roles, Allies and Oppressors)
Family circumstances are likely to have significant impact on young disabled person's perceptions and decisions relating to sport participation
Warnock Report (1978) stipulated that children should be integrated in mainstream schools
•Salamanca Statement (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1994) which proposes that governments enrol all children in mainstream schools, wherever possible
•‘There are strong educational, as well as social and moral grounds for educating children with SEN, or with disabilities, with their peers. This is an important part of building an inclusive society. An increasing number of schools are showing that an inclusive approach can reinforce a commitment for higher standards for all‟ (DfEE, p. 23).
•Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001): the child must be educated in a mainstream school unless this is incompatible with „(a) the wishes of his parent, or (b) the provision of efficient education for other children‟
SEN and Inclusion
Open activities-everyone does the same thing, without adaptation or modification
Modified activities-everyone does the same task but with changes to rules, areas or equipment
Parallel activities-everyone participates in the same types of activity, but different groups participate in different ways and at different levels
Disability sports activities-non-disabled participants take part in an activity that has a disability sport focus (reverse integration)
Separate activities-disabled participants play separately, either as individuals or in teams
What is Disability?

Up to £8 million National Lottery funding for disability sport.


Increasing the opportunities for young people and adults with a disability to regularly take part in sport.

Addressing specific barriers which make participation difficult.

Raise the profile and interest in taking part in community based sport with a view to motivating potential participants

Ensure the Places, People Play Legacy Plan is fully accessible to people with a disability.

Learn and promote what drives participation amongst people with a disability.


The content of the programme is in the early stages of development, however, it will:

Have the direct involvement of disabled people in its development
Will be focussed at a community level
Will seek to enhance and connect with existing provision where appropriate
Sport England: Places, People, Play
The rate of sports participation among adults with a limiting disability / illness has decreased from:

6.7% in 2007/2008
6.5% in 2010/2011.
Active People Survey 5
Active People Survey 5 (Sport England, 2012)
Overcoming barriers
Barriers and Facilitators?
How has this been conceptualised?
Reasonable Adjustments

Disability Discrimination Act (DDA, 2005)
Merely adopting a curriculum for able-bodied people without some critical dialogue is unacceptable. The voice of disabled people needs to be heard and seriously examined.
This is absolutely essential in the teaching of physical education. (Barton, 1993, p. 52)
It estimated that globally around 650 million people have some form of disability (Fitzgerald, 2009)

This represents around 10% of the global population
The Scope of Disability
Despite many positive changes over the last 30 years many disabled people remain socially disadvantaged

This disadvantage continues to extend to their opportunities to participate in Sport and PE (Fitzgerald, 2009)
Negative Impacts of Disability
Research, carried out by Sport England (2000, 2001, 2006) identified that many disabled people want to be physically active and healthy by having more opportunities to take part in sport.
The Active People Survey (2010) shows that disabled people are much less likely to take part in sport and physical activity. 6.6% compared to 16.5% in the whole adult population in England
The Aspiration-Participation Gap
The Medical Model
The Medical Model
The power of the medical profession within society has played a significant role in creating many of the societal perceptions of disability that are embedded within the medical model discourse (Wendell,1996)

Medical definitions and explanations of disability reinforce the assumption that disabled people are deviant from the norm and that it is this deviance or deficiency that causes problems to disabled people within normal society (Nixon, 2000)
Thompson and Emira (2011)
'They say every child matters, but they don't'

Leisure experiences of parents with children who have ASD and ADHD

Interviews with parents and carers
Telephone Interviews (n=44)
Focus groups (n=5)
In-depth Interviews (n=7)

Children experienced sense of isolation
Staff training and attitude towards 'hidden disability'
Difficult decision whether to 'disclose' or not
Doubt and McKoll (2003)
Yields similar benefits for disabled participants
as it does for others

Social benefits
Identity construction (Anderson, 2009)
Nixon (1988)
Family Support can be both:
Positive and Negative

Four typologies
Strong encouragers
Weak encouragers

Found that most parents were 2,3,
Role Models
Important for disabled participants

Anderson (2009):

Research on identity in young adolescent girls

Parents (often same sex)
Other competitors


Potential for, but lack of role models in media
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