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The Red Scare and McCarthyism
Transcript of The Red Scare and McCarthyism
First Red Scare
Fall of China-
Scared of communist expansion
Scared of Soviet nuclear power Truman Loyalty Campaign Set up Loyalty Boards at home
Funded anti-Communist practices overseas
Formerly Democrats soft on Communists
Campaign meant to weed out Reds Truman Campaign Cont. Hearings Federal Administrators instead of judges
Witnesses take no oath
Suspects could not be imprisoned
Loss of jobs
Black listed by society HUAC vs Hollywood Congresses House Un-American Activities Committee
Investigated Communist influence in movie industry
Ex-FBI Agents weed out Reds
Communist Celebrities were reported
Career was ruined McCarthyism The practice of making accusations of disloyalty, especially of pro-Communist activity, in many instances unsupported by proof or based on slight doubtful or irrelevant evidence Background Info Marquette University: degree in law
United States Marine Corps
Elected Wisconsin Senator in 1946 Joseph McCarthy Start of McCarthyism Looking for sure way of Reelection
Investigated Gov't State Departments
205 Reds in Truman's State Department
Salt Lake City--> 81
Washington--> 57 Key Accomplices Alfred Kohlberg Former FBI Agent
Info on connection to writers-public officials Senator Pat McCarran Nevada Senator
McCarran-Woods Act of 1950
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee Chairman
Credited McCarthy's persecutions Roy Cohn U.S. Attorney
Jewish-> blocked anti-Semitism
Interrogated for Un-American activities
Friends with Private Schine
Control of army
Big role of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Executed for espionage Downfall U.S. Poll-69% believed McCarthy=Good
McCarthy insulted Army General during investigations
J.B. Matthews research director
"Reds in our Churches"
Protestants biggest Communist supporting group
Public Outrage Edward R. Munrow Televised Army-McCarthy Hearings
Credibility was groundless
Individuals harassed during interrogations Dec. 2 1953-McCarthy voted out of Senate Resorted to alcohol and depression
Died May 2, 1957 Aftermath Jobs and credibility lost
Innocent people accused by own gov't
Children affected Hollywood Ten Screenwriters and Directors
Fought against committees such as HUAC.
Claimed that investigations violated their rights (First Amendment).
- Alvah Bessie
- Herbert Bieberman
- Lester Cole
- Edward Dmytryk
- Ring Lardner Jr
- John Howard Lawson
- Albert Maltz
- Samuel Ornitz
- Robert Adrian Scott
- Dalton Trumbo CPUSA Communist Party of the United States of America
Moscow spies were involved.
Nuclear Secrets were sent to USSR.
The Truman Loyalty Campaign
- 11 leaders guilty: Alien Registration Act
- 5 year sentence and $10,000 fine
- Continued to prosecute 100 more.
Fascism in the US? Russia needed change
Czar Nikolas was overthrown.
Bolsheviks promised "peace, land, and bread"
Gov't went from capitalism to communism
First big revolution
US scared off other revolutions. Bolshevik Revolution First Red Scare (1917-1920) Followed after the Russian Revolution
U.S. made changes in legislation
Looked for antiradicals and their organizations
Deported many aliens Nuclear Weapons "Nuclear secrets" had leaked to Soviets.
Soviets huge nuclear power quickly.
U.S. in arms race
Fear of nuclear weapon use.
Could use weapons to spread communism. The Domino Theory Eisenhower Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) Communist victory leads to chain reaction.
Threat of takeover in Southeast Asia
U.S. used theory in Vietnam War First suggested Domino Theory
CIA to fight communism around world.
"Open Skies" policy was suggested. Eisenhower helped create
Attempt to stop communism in region. Fall of China Concerns of spies with Stalin and Zedong
Leader of Communist movement
Soviet Army helping (Red Army)
Balance of powers to Communists
Blame on Democrats and Truman Korean War Ending the war
Showing we're serious Executive Order 9835 All Federal employees screened for "loyalty"
Authorized attorney general to list Communist organizations
Being a member is grounds for dismissal Marshall Plan Introduction of large American capital given to affected countries of Communism
Strengthened local economies
Successfully stop Communist progression
American exporting industry boomed Overall Effects Hardening foreign policy with communist countries.
Could be part of Vietnam war.
A loss of jobs
Hollywood and movie industry
Innocent people became outcasts