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Biology Chapter 4 Section 1 Role of Climate

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book
by

Mark Meredith

on 2 March 2014

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Transcript of Biology Chapter 4 Section 1 Role of Climate

The Role of Climate
END OF SECTION

How does the greenhouse effect maintain the biosphere's temperature range?
The Greenhouse Effect
Seasons
Atmospheric gases that trap the heat energy of sunlight and maintain Earth's temperature range include:
carbon dioxide (CO2)

Methane (CH4)

water vapor (H2O)
The Greenhouse Effect
US Climate
Variation of temperature in the temperate zone is due primarily to
air and ocean currents.
the greenhouse effect.
variation in the sun’s energy production.
latitude and season.
4-1
Earth's temperature range is maintained by
the greenhouse effect.
climate zones.
ocean currents and winds.
latitude differences.
4-1
The Earth’s polar zones are cold because
they are never heated by the sun.
at the poles, the sun's rays are at a very low angle.
the greenhouse effect does not occur at the poles.
heat is transported from the poles to the equator.
4-1
Unequal heating of Earth’s surface drives winds and ocean currents, which transport heat throughout the biosphere.
Heat Transport in the Biosphere

As a result of differences in latitude and thus the angle of heating, Earth has three main climate zones:
polar
temperate
tropical
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Solar radiation strikes different parts of Earth’s surface at an angle that varies throughout the year.

At the equator, energy from the sun strikes Earth almost directly.

At the North and South Poles, the sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface at a lower angle.
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The tropical zone is warm all year long because
the sun’s angle changes the most in that part of Earth.
ocean water is warmest near the equator.
it receives direct or nearly direct sunlight year-round.
landmasses in the tropic latitudes hold on to heat.
4-1
The upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air creates
upwellings.
air currents.
ocean currents.
the greenhouse effect.
4-1
Climate is caused by:
trapping of heat by the atmosphere
latitude
transport of heat by winds and ocean currents
amount of precipitation
shape and elevation of landmasses
What Is Climate?
Weather

is the day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.

Climate

refers to the average year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region.
What Is Climate?
4-1 The Role of Climate
Warm currents
Cold currents
Surface ocean currents warm or cool the air above them, affecting the weather and climate of nearby landmasses.
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
Polar Easterlies
Westerlies
Northeast Trade Winds
Equator
Easterlies
Polar
Westerlies
Southeast Trade Winds
Prevailing winds
66.5°S
23.5°S

23.5°N
66.5°N
Earth’s Winds
Heat Transport in the Biosphere

Sunlight
Less Direct Sunlight
Sunlight
Polar
66.5°N
23.5°N
23.5°S
66.5°S
90°S South Pole
Antarctic Circle
Tropic of Capricorn
Equator
Tropic of Cancer
Arctic Circle
Polar
Temperate
Tropical
Temperate
90°N North Pole
Most direct sunlight
Less Direct Sunlight
Earth’s Main Climate Zones
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
Greenhouse gases trap some heat
Some heat escapes into space
Atmosphere
Earth’s Surface
Sunlight
The natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth’s atmosphere by this layer of gases is called the greenhouse effect.
The Greenhouse Effect
Full transcript