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Transcript of Neutrophil
Inactivated neutrophil lifespan is about 4 to 5 days.
Activated neutrophil life span 1 to 2 days .
Some scientist belive that neutrophils have short life span in order to do not harm the other cells by their antimicrobial products.
Macrophages often phagocyte neutrophils after they digest pathogens .
The inactivate neutrophil have round shape, and once activated they take amorphous or amoeba-like shape and able to extend pseudopods to chase antigens.
They have almost the same size .
Their diameter between 12 to15 micrometers .
Their nucleus contain 2 to 5 lobes bind together by hair like filaments.
Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance by producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are genomic DNA-based net-like structures that capture bacteria,virus and fungi.
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs)
There is a difference between the neutrophil of male and female subject ,the neutrophils’ nucleus of female contain additional X chromosome known as neutrophil drumstick.
Neutrophil phagocyte bacteria and other foreign microorganisms.
Their move action called amoeboid motion.
They extend pseudopodium which is projection that is formed by the flow of granules to one direction.
100 billion neutrophils are produced by the bone marrow daily.
Mature neutrophil take around one week to be formed from precursor cell in the marrow.
Neutrophils will have hypersegmentation as they mature.
The mature cells live only few days.
They known as granulocytes same as eosinophils and basophils .
Their granules stains pink or purple blue.
Neutrophil are 50-80 % of white blood cells
Neutrophils are type of white blood cell .
they named neutrophil due to their ability to
stain by neutral dyes.
They are important part of the innate immune response, and one of the primary responder to inflammation.
it is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).
Migration or movement of cells depend on chemical concentration, either toward or way from the chemical stimulus.
In neutrophils chemotaxis is migrate to sites of bacterial access or tissue damage.
It is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris.
Phagocytosis in four steps:
degranulation in four steps :
Their nucleolus disappears as they mature.
In the cytoplasm ,they have small Golgi apparatus , thin ribosomes and mitochondria ,and no rough endoplasmic reticulum.
They have around 200 granules in the cytoplasm.
Role In Disease
The peripheral neutrophil concentration depends upon:
Bone marrow production and release.
The rate of neutrophil movement into the tissues.
The proportion of circulating to marginating neutrophils.
may occur without tissue damage or other pathologic stimulus.
this occurs 4-5 hours after a pathologic stimulus.
this follows acute neutrophilia (shift to the left).
Tissue destruction or drug intoxication:
tissue infarctions, burns, neoplasms, uremia, gout.
An extreme neutrophilia with a WBC count > 30 x 109/L.
Similar to chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML).
May be seen in tuberculosis, chronic infections, malignant tumors, etc.
Conditions that are associated with neutrophilia are:
Increase the number of neutrophil granulocytes in blood
Decrease the number of neutrophil granulocytes in blood:
Mild if the ANC ranges from 1000-1500/microL.
Moderate with an ANC of 500-1000/microL.
Severe if the ANC is below 500/microL.
Decreased bone marrow production:
stem cell failure, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or myelopthesis.
Ineffective bone marrow production.
Increased cell loss:
due to increased movement of cells into the tissues or due to an immune mechanism such as production of anti-leukocyte antibodies.
Neutrophil antigens are involved in a variety of clinical conditions including transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and other transfusion-related diseases.
There are five characterized groups of human neutrophil antigen (HNA) systems, the HNA1 to 5.
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• Life span.
• Anti-microbial function:
o Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).
• Role in disease:
• Neutrophil antigens.
The receptors of neutrophil are formed from G-protein-coupled and pertussis-toxin-sensitive formyl peptide (fMLP) receptor.
The fMLP has two formations which are high-affinity form (the formyl peptide receptor) and low-affinity form (formyl peptide receptor-like 1).
The normal human neutrophil has about 50,000 fMLP receptors per cell.
Chemoattractants such as bacterial products include: formylated peptides, phospholipid metabolism or chemokines.
The Mechanism of Chemotaxis
• A chemoattractant is bind to its cell-surface receptor.
• A series of cytoplasmic events is triggered and going to activate the cytoskeletal machinery.
• This activation results in the neutrophil change morphology by forming leading-edge actin.
• The leading-edge actin is necessary for cell migration toward the source of the chemoattractants.