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9/11 and the Early War on Terror

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Kasper Rasmussen

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of 9/11 and the Early War on Terror

Enhanced interrogation techniques
Islamic terrorism and US foreign policy in the 1990s
The Early War on Terror: Afghanistan
Hardened attitudes
Congress sanctioned the use of force - U.S. forces engaged in Afghanistan in October 2001

ISAF and international support for American war on terror -
"nous sommes tous Américains"

Taliban was quickly overrun - but Osama bin Laden was not found until 2011

Insurgency and resistance continued
USA Patriot Act
domestic surveillance
suspension of civil liberties

National Security Strategy of 2002
Axis of evil (Iraq, Iran and North Korea)
"Either with us or against us"
Wednesday, 23 April, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Facts and figures
What happened?
Four highjacked planes - two hit the WTC, one hit the Pentagon and one went down in Pennsylvania.

About 3,500 people died - more than Peal Harbor

19 operators belonging to al Qaeda - a transnational, stateless Islamic fundamentalist organization - committed the attacks

Osama bin Laden and Khalid Sheik Mohammed were masterminds of the attacks

The War on Terror was to a large extent ideological

Iraq over Afghanistan - Saddam over Osama

The limit for acceptable action was expanded
9/11 and the Early War on Terror
US foreign policy in the 1990s:
No foreign policy
Humanitarian decade
Nation-building and democracy
Market-driven approach
Low focus on terrorism
The rise of al-Qaeda:
late 1980s in Afghanistan fighting the Soviets along side the Mujahideen
resisted US soldiers in Somalia in 1992
funding of the 1993 WTC bombing
1998 bombing of US embassies in Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam
2000 attack on USS Cole
Torture memos
John Yoo - expansive view of presidential powers
Detainees from Afghanistan were not prisoners of war under Geneva Convention
Waterboarding etc. was acceptable in times of war
Full transcript