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Hemoglobin and Oxygen

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Jean Wang

on 29 December 2015

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Transcript of Hemoglobin and Oxygen

References
Equilibrium in Biological Systems
Hemoglobin and Oxygen Equilibrium
Hemoglobin-Oxygen Reaction in Acidic Conditions:
HbH+(aq) + O2 (aq) <--> HbO2 (aq) + H30+(aq)
As shown in the chemical equation H+ can attach to hemoglobin when conditions are acidic
As a result, more acid means that it is harder for hemoglobin to hold on to oxygen
Less oxyhemoglobin will be produced, thus lowering the K value
Binding of Oxygen on Hemoglobin
by Alisha, Savannah, and Jean
Hemoglobin and Oxygen Equilibrium
amount of hemoglobin reacts with oxygen, depends on the partial pressure of the oxygen
Higher the partial pressure, the more oxygen will bind on hemoglobin
How Hemoglobin-Oxygen Equilibrium Impacts the Organ Systems
Contents
1) About Hemoglobin and Oxygen
2) Equilibrium Concepts and Hemoglobin and Oxygen
3) Hemoglobin and Oxygen in Biological systems
4) Hemoglobin and Oxygen in Biochemical systems
5) If Equilibrium is Not Achieved
Things that change the equilibrium balance between oxygen and Hemoglobin
1. Concentration
2. Pressure

Acidity
Concentration
also expressed as partial pressures
with high oxygen concentrations oxyhemoglobin forms (shifts to the right)
low oxygen concentrations oxyhemoglobin dissociates to hemoglobin and oxygen ( shifts to the left)
Pressure
Temperature
Increasing the temperature denatures the bond between oxygen and hemoglobin
K value decreases as temperature increases
Results in an increase within concentration of hemoglobin and oxygen
Both increasing and decreasing temperature dramatically will denature oxyhemoglobin
Re-establishing equilibrium occurs when shifting to the right and this increases the production of oxyhemoglobin

• Air pressure directly correlates with the amount of oxygen needed for survival
• DECREASE In gas pressure at high altitudes
o Shifts to the left (reactants) when pressure decreases and volume increase
o Re-establishing equilibrium, more gas molecules of hemoglobin and oxygen will have to be present
o Less oxyhemoglobin
• INCREASE in gas pressure at low altitudes
o Re-establish equilibrium, shift to right so fewer reactants present
o high air pressure makes more oxyhemoglobin needed to survive
Balance is shown by this oxygen dissociation curve for oxyhemoglobin
Low concentration
uncombined hemoglobin in the blood and little or no oxyhemoglobin

High Concentration
little uncombined hemoglobin in blood and there is a formation of oxyhemoglobin
Le Chatelier's Principle
a system in dynamic equilibrium responds to any stress by restoring the equilibrium
result in shifts favouring a particular side of the equilibrium equation
Hemoglobin develops in the bone marrow
Oxygen is transported around the body in blood by the complex molecule hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a globular protein having a central iron atom
When hemoglobin reacts with oxygen, oxyhemoglobin forms
Oxygenation of blood forms the equilibrium reaction
Equilibrium and K Equations
positions of different equilibria depend on the partial pressure of O
2
Chatelier's Principle
Temperature
Acidity
Normal human blood pH is within the range of 7.35-7.45
Tissues are more acidic because cellular respiration releases carbon dioxide, which forms carbonic acid
Because more acid decreases the K value, less oxyhemoglobin can be formed at equilibrium
As a result, there is a shift towards the reactants to form hemoglobin and oxygen
This allows oxygen to be released in the tissues
In Lungs
Oxygen concentration increases as a person inhales (by the respiratory system)
Will shift to the right to reach equilibrium balance the high oxygen level
Produces more oxyhemoglobin which is transported (by the circulatory system)
Oxygen concentration decreases because it is used up by the tissue
Re-establish equilibrium by shifting to the left
Oxyhemoglobin decomposes, releasing hemoglobin and oxygen
The oxygen goes to the cells
Hemoglobin is transported back to the lungs to repeat the cycle
In Tissue
("Respiratory system: Anatomy and histology", Dec 29, 2013)
If Equilibrium is Not Achieved...
Lungs
Not enough oxyhemoglobin is formed
This does not allow enough oxygen attached to red blood cells to be transported to the body

Tissue
Not enough oxyhemoglobin breaks apart
This does not release enough oxygen, and it would get carried back to lungs
Health Risks
Can immediately lead to death
Fatigue
Shortness of breath
Paleness
Heart failure
Decreased production of red blood cells
Interfering with Equilibrium
Altitude sickness
- not enough oxygen available in the air, so there is a shift towards reactant and does not form enough oxyhemoglobin in the lungs
Carbon Monoxide
- carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin 200 time faster, thus takin the spot away from oxygen
Anemia
- not enough hemoglobin in the body, which causes a shift towards reactants and does not produce enough hemoglobin
K Constant Value
Equilibrium Concepts and Hemoglobin-Oxygen

values K1-K4 are successive stoichiometric equilibrium constants
these examples of hemoglobin's are constituted of four subunits
oxygen binding is presented in terms of four stoichiometric binding constants
two main factors that affect the K value are temperature and acidity
(Klotz, Jan 3, 2014)
(“How does Equilibrium affect oxygen transport in the bloodstream?”, Jan 3,2014)
(“How does Equilibrium affect oxygen transport in the bloodstream?”, Jan 3,2014)
(Klotz, Jan 3, 2014)
(“How does Equilibrium affect oxygen transport in the bloodstream?”, Jan 3,2014)
(Le Châtlier's Principle and Hemoglobin Saturation, Jan 3, 2014)
(“Transport of oxygen in the blood”, January 3,2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(“Oxygen Binding to Hemoglobin”, Jan 3,2014)
(“Oxygen Binding to Hemoglobin”, Jan 3,2014)
(Lewis & Evans, Jan 3,2014)
(“Metal Complex in the Blood”, Jan 3,2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(“How does Equilibrium affect oxygen transport in the bloodstream?”, Jan 3,2014)
(“Transport of Oxygen in the Blood”, January 3,2014)
(“Transport of Oxygen in the Blood”, January 3,2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(Abithira, Jan 3, 2014)
(“Transport of Oxygen in the Blood”, January 3,2014)
(“Transport of Oxygen in the Blood”, January 3,2014)
(Lewis & Evans, Jan 3,2014)
(Lewis & Evans, Jan 3,2014)
(“Metal Complex in the Blood”, Jan 3,2014)
(“Metal Complex in the Blood”, Jan 3,2014)
(“Metal Complex in the Blood”, Jan 3,2014)
(“Transport of oxygen in the blood”, January 3,2014)
In this situation, the K expressions are represented to the right
Malfunction of Circulatory/Respiratory System
Oxygen transported by hemoglobin is needed for respiration to make ATP (energy)
Respiratory system captures oxygen
Circulatory system contains hemoglobin to transport oxygen inside the body
K Constant and Equations
K value can change and is dependent on the acidity, temperature, and other factors in the environment
Equilibrium K Constant
the ratio of equilibrium concentrations for a particular chemical system at a particular temperature
determines the relative concentration of products compared to the concentration of reactants at equilibrium
(Clancy,C. et al, Jan 8, 2014)
(Clancy,C. et al, Jan 8, 2014)
K=[products]
[reactants]
Equilibrium Constant Expression
the equilibrium expression is based on the general equilibrium reaction
[A],[B],[C],[D], are the concentrations of the reactants and the products after the reaction has reached equilibrium
a, b, c, d are the stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced chemical equation at equilibrium
(Clancy,C. et al, Jan 8, 2014)
(Clancy,C. et al, Jan 8, 2014)
(Clancy,C. et al, Jan 8, 2014)
(Clancy,C. et al, Jan 8, 2014)
(Clancy,C. et al, Jan 8, 2014)
The following picture is a diagram of hemoglobin
Here is video further explaining hemoglobin:
(Lewis & Evans, Jan 3,2014)
Hemoglobin and Oxygen in Biochemical Systems
("The oxygen dissociation curve", Jan 9, 2014)
("The oxygen dissociation curve", Jan 9, 2014)
("Venous system within the cardiovascular system", Jan 9, 2013)
Because oxyhemoglobin denatures as temperature increases, K value also decreases
As a result, hyperthermia causes K value to decrease
Hypothermia causes K value to increase
These changes in the body are small
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Aragon, Jan 9 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
(Varjavand, Jan 9, 2014)
The heme groups in hemoglobin are proteins which take part in
cooperative binding
with oxygen i.e. once one oxygen molecule bind, it increases the likelihood of others binding ("Hemogobin", Jan 9 2014)
Allosteric inhibition
allows the oxygen to be distributed where it is most needed: the hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide molecules bind to the heme groups, making it much harder for the protein to hold onto the oxygen, thus releasing oxygen to the locations of the body that are in need of it the most ("Hemoglobin", Jan 9 2014)
Hemoglobin is composed of four globulin chains: two alpha-globulin chains and two beta-globulin chains (Nabili, Jan 4 2014)
Each globulin chains have a central structure called a heme group, each with an iron atom (Nabili, Jan 4 2014)
The iron is what causes blood to appear red (Abdullah, Dec 29 2013)

Each heme group contains one iron atom Fe2+ that binds one oxygen molecule (Abdullah, Dec 29 2013)
When Fe meets the oxygen, Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ ("Hemoglobin and Myoglobin", Jan 9, 2014)
Bond between Fe and oxygen is bent and ("Hemoglobin and Myoglobin", Jan 9, 2014)
The hemoglobin is able to develop an unstable, reversible bond with oxygen (Abdllah, Dec 29 2013)

Binding of Oxygen on Hemoglobin
("Hemoglobin and Myoglobin", Jan 9, 2014)
This picture indicates the binding position of oxygen on a heme.
("Altitude sickness", Jan 9, 2013)
(May, Jan 9 2013)
(May, Jan 9 2013)
(May, Jan 9 2013)
(“How does Equilibrium affect oxygen transport in the bloodstream?”, Jan 3,2014)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
(Martin, Jan 9 2013)
Thank you for watching our Prezi!
Abdullah, Dec 29 2013)
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