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Cells

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by

Pryanka Mulia

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of Cells

Covers the outside of the cell.
Controls the movement of chemicals in and out of the cell
Contains pores

Nucleus
Like the brain of a cell.
Contains all it's genetic material, including the DNA.
Helps control eating, movement and reproduction.
Not all cells have a defined nucleus.
Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane
How to use a Microscope
1. Always hold the microscope with two hands.
2. Plug in the microscope and turn it on.
3. Turn on the light at the bottom.
4. Put the slide on the stage and adjust the stage clips.
5. Turn the nose piece to get the magnification you want. (be careful not to let the objective lens touch the slide)
6. Look into the ocular lenses and adjust the stage position with the coarse focus knob until you see the objects you are observing.
7. Then, adjust the fine focus knob to make the image clearer.
Parts of a Microscope
Structure of a Cell
Microscope
Cells
There are three main parts of a cell:
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Cell Adaptation
Cells
(By: Pryanka 7.3)
Sources
Animal and Plant Cells
Plant Cells
Animal Cells
Organelles
- substructure of a cell
- float around the cytoplasm
- Many different purposes depending on their kind
- The number of organelles in a cell range from none to thousands depending on the cell.
Examples:
Mitochondria
- Riley, Peter D. Cambridge Checkpoint Science. London: Hodder Education, 2011
- "Mitochondria - Turning on the Powerhouse." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Mitochondria. Biology4Kids, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_mito.html>.
- Carter, J. Stein. "Cells and Organelles." Cells and Organelles. J. Stein Carter, 14 Jan. 2014. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. <http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/cells.htm>.
- "Google." Google. Google, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015
https://www.google.co.id/?gws_rd=cr&ei=nLYaVY6iN5CyuASwpoDADg#q=definition+of+cell
- "Cell Membranes." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015. http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/cell-membranes-14052567
- "Cell Nucleus - Commanding the Cell." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Cell Nucleus. Biology4Kids, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_nucleus.html>
- Bailey, Regina, Biology Expert. "All About Animal Cells." Biology.About. N.p., 2015. Web. 03 Apr. 2015. <http://biology.about.com/od/cellbiology/ss/animal_cells.htm>
"Cell and Simple Cell Transport." BBC News. BBC, 2014. Web. 04 Apr. 2015. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/cells/cellsrev1.shtml>
"Plant Cell Anatomy - EnchantedLearning.com." Plant Cell Anatomy - EnchantedLearning.com. N.p., 2014. Web. 06 Apr. 2015. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/cell/>
"Endoplasmic Reticulum - Wrapping It Up." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Endoplasmic Reticulum. N.p., 2015. Web. 07 Apr. 2015. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_er.html>
"How to Use a Microscope." How to Use a Microscope. Microbus, 2015. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. <http://www.microscope-microscope.org/activities/school/microscope-use.htm
Martin, Jean, and Sam Ellis. Cambridge Essentials Science Core 7. N.p.: Cambridge UP, n.d. Print
Johnson, Keith, Sue Adamson, Gareth Williams, and Lawrie Ryan. Spotlight Science 7. N.p.: Nelson Thornes, n.d. 9-22. Print.
Morrison, Karen. International Science Coursebook 1. N.p.: Hodder Education, n.d. 27-36. Print.
My brain.
Pak Ervan's brain.
Cell:
the
smallest structural
and
functional unit
of an organism, typically
microscopic
and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

Cells make up every living organism on Earth.
They are microscopic which means they can only be seen under a microscope.
A watery jelly substance that floats around the cell.
Contained by the cell membrane.
May contain stored food and other helpful organelles.
Chemical reactions happen in the cytoplasm.
Animal and Plant cells have different features that help them to properly survive.
Animal cells are
eukaryotic
which means they contain a
well-defined nucleus
.
Contains
lysosomes
- sacs of enzymes that digest cell macromolecules
Contains
mitochondria
- generates energy for the cell and is the site of cellular respiration.
Contains
ribosomes
- consists RNA and proteins
Heterotrophic
How cells work together with major organ systems
Animal Cells
Plant Cells
Feature
Cell Wall
Shape
Chloroplast
Large Vacuole
Lysosomes
Eukaryotic
Regular
Irregular
Plant Cells are
eukaryotic
.
have a
cell wall
to strengthen the cell and keeps it in it's regular shape.
contain
chloroplasts
that contain
chlorophyll
which
absorbs light energy from the sun for photosynthesis.
has a permanent
large vacuole
filled with cell sap to keep the cell turgid and maintains the shape of the cell.
contains a
mitochondria
to generate energy/ turn the food ito energy for the cell.
Autotrophic
*enlarged and swollen with water
Animal vs. Plant
Root Hair Cells
Root hair cells have an
extension
at the end of the cell to
increase the surface area
of the cell. Because the root hair cells' job is to
absorb water
, an increase in surface area means an increase in the amount of water absorbed.
Ciliated Epithelial Cells
Ciliated Epithelial cells are located in our
respiratory tracts
. The
cilia
helps them to capture harmful bacteria that will go into our lungs.
Palisade Cells
Palisade Cells are located in leaves. Their job is to
absorb the light energy
from the sun for
photosynthesis
. Palisade Cells contain
chloroplasts
to help them absorb light energy needed for photosynthesis.
Nerve Cells
Red Blood Cells
The microscope is a tool used to observe microscopic objects such as cells. The microscope magnifies the objects allowing us to observe it even closer.
Nerve Cells have
long, thread-like extensions
that help them to
connect to other nerve cells
to
send messages
to and from the brain.
Red blood Cells are disc-shaped, but their centers dip inwards. Red Blood cells only have a nucleus when they are growing. When they are fully grown, they lose it so that they can be packed with
haemoglobin
which combines with oxygen to form
oxyhaemoglobin
. This substance is what they carry to parts of our body that need
oxygen
.
Smooth Muscle Cells
Smooth Muscle Cells are arranged in
layers at right angles
to each other. When the cells in
one layer contract
, they push the food bolus down through your esophagus. When the cells in the next layer contract, they
stretch
the muscles in the previous layer to move the food in a wave-like movement called
peristalsis
.
Many different types of cells have a special feature that helps them adapt to their main purpose and adapt to their surroundings. These features are often times crucial in the cells' job.
Examples:
1. Cells are what make up the organs in the organ systems.
2. Cells are present in every major organ system in your body.
3. Due to their adaptation features, they help our major organ systems work properly.
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