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Presentation

Camer reverse engeneering
by

Magda Makarewicz

on 26 October 2012

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Transcript of Presentation

"FREE TO THE WORLD" Magda Makarewicz Abdalla Emam Allie Levi Analog Photo Camera World Before Photography (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Cylinder Seals Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE. China, Japan 627 CE. Buddhist Woodblocks Nuremberg Chronicles 1493, Germany Albrecht Durer Rhino 1515, Germany Prior to introduction of photography, visual communication was limited to the techniques like engraving, wood block, etching and lithography. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Visual Revolution While the camera was not invented until the 19th century, the two basic elements of a camera had been well known for hundreds of years.

- The effect of a lighted area separated from a dark area with only a pin hole opening between them. An inverted (upside down) image of the lighted area will be produced on a flat surface in the dark area. This technology, called "camera obscura" .

- The second known element of a working camera was the existence of materials capable of permanent change when exposed to light. 470 BCE Camera Obscura used to form images on walls in darkened rooms; image formation via a pinhole. Ancient Times 19th Century Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images deteriorated rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than from candles. 1800 CAMERA OBSCURA SUN PICTURES Nicephore Niepce combined camera obscura with photosensitive paper in 1816, and in 1826 by coating a tin plate with asphalt created the first in history permanent photograph. NICEPHORE NIPCE CREATES A PERMANENT IMAGE 1826 1800 1826 Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and "developed" with warmed mercury; Daguerre is awarded a state pension by the French government in exchange for publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to use the Daguerreotype process. Louis Daguerre & Daguerretypes 1837 1837 "At first we did not dare to look long at the images he (Daguerre) produced. We were frightened by the clarity of these men, imagining that these small, indeed, tiny, daces, fixed on a plate, could turn back and look at us." Charles Dauthendry, c. 1850. (Johnson, 1991) Talbot patents his process under the name "calotype". Calotype or talbotype is an early photographic process using paper coated with silver iodide. The term calotype comes from the Greek (kalos), "beautiful", and π (tupos), "impression". Tolbot & Calotype 1841 1841 Mathew Brady and staff covers the American Civil War. He first applied for permission to travel to the battle sites to President Lincoln himself. Lincoln granted permission in 1861 with the proviso that Brady finance the project himself. Mathew Brady 1861-65 1861-65 Maddox was an English photographer and physician who invented lightweight gelatin negative plates for photography. photographers could use commercial dry plates off the shelf instead of having to prepare their own emulsions in a mobile darkroom. Richard Leach Maddox & Dry Plate 1871 1871 Kodak introduced a new camera - first film camera, allowing for up to 100 pictures on one roll of film.

This invention was an iprovement of a previous camera with a 20ft roll of paper. 1st Kodak Camera with a roll of film 1889-1900 1889-1900 20th Century First commercial color film, the Autochrome plates, manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France First commercial color film 1907 1907 Nippon Kogaku K.K, - Begining of Nikkon 1917 1907 Leica 1924 1924 Leitz markets a derivative of Barnack's camera commercially as the "Leica", the first high quality 35mm camera. Strobe Photography 1931 Development of strobe photography by Harold Edgerton. 1931 Fuji Photo Film founded 1934 Fuji photo film is founded.
Four years later, in 1938 Fuji is already making cameras & lenses in addition to film 1934 Hasselbland, Pentax 1948 Hasselblad in Sweden offers its first medium-format SLR for commercial sale;
Pentax in Japan introduces the automatic diaphragm; Polaroid sells instant black and white film 1948 Nikkon F Introduced 1959 Introduction of Nikon F. Many similar cameras followed. 1948 How it works? Body Body Focusing Screen Precise and reliable focusing is required to fully utilize the capabilities of the SLR-lenses.
It allows one to choose the area of focus in the composition. What it does? A focusing screen is a flat translucent material, either a ground glass or fresnel lens. How its made? Mirror It is an ultra-thin, ultra-lightweight semi-transparent mirror.
Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate. The most common substrate is glass. The reflective coating is typically applied to the back surface of the glass How its made? Made to enable through-the-lens exposure measurement and possibly to reduce camera shake, but later most successfully to enable fast series photography, which otherwise would be slowed down by the movement of the reflex mirror, while maintaining constant finder vision. What it does? Shutter speed Ring machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? What is shutter speed ? The aperture diaphragm of a lens (bigger or smaller values) AND timing (open and close) of the camera's shutter curtain - BOTH perform the tasks of regulating the amount of light entering the camera and expose onto the film. What it does? Focus Ring machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? This is a ring on the lens body, which moves the lens elements inside the lens. By adjusting the position of the glass elements, the image produced by the lens can be brought into clear focus. What it does? Aperture Ring machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? The aperture ring changes the lens aperture which controls how much light reaches the film sensor. What it does? View Finder A viewfinder is made out of glass How its made? a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and in many cases to focus, the picture. What it does? Rewind Release Lever machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? The purpose for the rewind release button is for the photographer to rewind theirfilm before completing the roll. What it does? Shutter Speed Dial machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? The shutter is the device in a camera that opens and closes to expose the film tolight for a measured amount of time. The shutter-speed dial selects the amountof time the film is exposed to light. What it does? Shutter Release Button machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? When pressed, the shutter of the camera is "released", so that it opens to capturea picture, and then closes. This button is the actual trigger to your camera. What it does? Film Advance Lever machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? The normal location would be where the right thumb would sit on the top of thecamera body, directly behind the shutter release button. A single pull would rollout the perfect amount of film so the next picture could be taken and exposed. What it does? Exposure Counter machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? A frame counter or exposure counter is a dial for calculating the number ofexposures remaining on a roll of film. What it does? Self-timer Lever machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? A self-timer is a device on a camera that gives a delay for the shutter releasebutton to actually be released. It is most commonly used to let photographerstake photos of themselves, hence the name.The timer's delay gives the photographer time to steady the camera before theshutter fires, and allows vibrations from the mirror to die out. What it does? machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? Mirror Air Damper A damper is a valve or plate that regulates the flow of air inside the camera. Adamper may be used to cut off central air conditioning (heating or cooling) toregulate it for room-by-room temperature. What it does? machined aluminum and steel were popular for a while and there were even some special edition titanium cameras (nikon made a titanium compact and a special edition FM, Olympus made the OM4Ti and Leica have made a few titanium cameras) How its made? CdS cells are sensors that allow you to detect light. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use and don't wear out. For that reason they often appear in toys, gadgets and appliances and lately robots. CdS cells are basically a resistor that changes its resistive value (in ohms) depending on how much light is shining onto the squiggly face. What it does? CDS cells It is made out of a Five sided optical glass element. How its made? A Pentaprism is a five-sided optical glass element that reflects light through 90°. A variant, the roof pentaprism, has two sloping sides on one of the reflecting surfaces, usually the top, to allow light from the mirror of an SLR to be reflected into an eye-level (reflex) viewfinder with the picture appearing the correct way around to the photographer. This avoids the problem suffered by other reflex viewfinder systems, which can have the image laterally (left-right) reversed - or even upside-down, making framing difficult, and following a moving subject confusing. The roof pentaprism is the reason for most SLR cameras having a triangular top to their viewfinders. What it does? Pentaprism It is made out of a Five sided optical glass element. How its made? Whether you prefer using a camera with a built-in meter or a separate handheld meter, this switch allows you to turn on or off the auto exposure meter or to manually get the light exposure you need. What it does? Meter Switch
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