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Betty Neuman Systems Model

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Heather Berryman

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Betty Neuman Systems Model

Betty Neuman Systems Model
The Five Person Variable
The Person
Three hypothetical boundaries
lines of resistance
normal lines of defense
flexible lines of defense
Education History
The Theory
Neuman published and edited various works on her theory, including:

A Model for Teaching Total Person Approach to Patient Problems
" in 1972

The Betty Neuman Health-care Systems Model: A Total Person Approach to Patient Problems

The Neuman Systems Model: Application to Nursing Education and Practice
" 1982
Influence of spiritual beliefs (faith and religion)
Life's developmental processes
Neuman Systems Model
Focus on client system

Client is viewed as an open system

Client viewed as a whole being who interacts with the environment
Metaparadigm consists of 4 concepts:
Person, Environment, Health, Nursing
Relationships; social and cultural functioning
Bodily structure and function
Mental processes, functions and emotions
Lines of Resistance
homeostatic mechanisms such as neuroendocrine system

if these are not effective, the core becomes vulnerable
Normal Lines of Defense
represent what the clients have become over time

include intelligence, habits, problem solving, and coping abilities

include genetic and physical makeup
Flexible Line of Defense
maximum potential for change

can be extended and strengthened

includes variables such as nutrition, sleep, exercise, and social activity
Internal environment
: exists within the client system
External environment
: exist outside the client system
Created Environment
: created and developed unconsciously by the client
Any environmental force which can potentially affect the stability of the system:
- occur within person
- occur between individuals
- occur outside the individuals
Neuman defined nursing as:

"The action which assists individuals, families and groups to maintain maintain maximum level of wellness and the primary aim is stability of the client system, through nursing interventions to reduce stressors". (as cited in Neuman, n.d.)

Envisioned a three stage nursing process


Profession is concerned with the five person variables

Holistic nursing approach

Dynamic application
The role of the nurse is seen in terms of degree of reaction to stressors, and the use of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions
Harmony and balance between the internal and external environment

Wellness occurs when the clients flexible lines of defense has prevented penetration
Primary Prevention
Occurs before the system reacts to a stressor

Strengthens the person to enable him or her to better deal with stressors

Includes health promotion and the maintenance of health and wellness
Secondary Prevention
Occurs after the system reacts to a stressor

Focuses on preventing damage to the central core by strengthening the the internal lines of resistance and/or removing the stressor

Tertiary Prevention
Occurs after the system has been treated through secondary prevention strategies

Offers support to the client and attempts to add energy to the system or reduce energy needed in order to facilitate reconstitution
Limitations to the Theory

influence of environment on health
looks at health and wellness as existing on a continuum
looks at all variable affecting a patient
goal as nurses is to reduce the encounter with stressors or diminish their effect
The Nursing Role
Born in Lowel Ohio
BSc in Public Health/Psychology
BSc in Nursing from UCLA
RN from Peoples Hospital of Nursing Akron, Ohio
MSc Mental Health and Public Health Consultation from
Ph.D Clinical Psychology
from Pacific Western
Honorary doctorate from Grand Valley State University
Mainly focuses on prevention, rather than promotion
Does not include promotion of self-efficacy of the client
Concept of lines of defense is not congruent with all individuals
Stressors that improve wellness?
Health includes:


Fulbrook, P. (1991). The application of the Neuman Systems Model to intensive care. Intensive Care Nursing, 7, 28-39.

Global Immersions Inc. (2008). Boston: City of Culture [computer generated image]. Retrieved from http://www.bostonhomestayblog.com

Gonzalo, A. (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: Betty Neuman. Retrieved from http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/betty-neuman.html

Hallick, J. (2013).We have an intuition that is so strong, if we just stop for long enough to listen [photograph]. Fruit-powered digest. Retrieved from http://fruit-powered.com

InMomento (2013). Come comunicare con gli stati vegetativi? [photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.vita.it

Neuman, B. (n.d.). Neuman Systems Model. Retrieved from http://www.neumansystemsmodel.org

Ross, M., Bourbonnais, F., & Carroll, G. (1987). Curricular Design and the Betty Neuman Systems Model: a new Approach to Learning. International Nursing Review, 34(3/273), 75-79.

Ross, M., & Bourbonnais, F. (1985). The Betty Neuman systems model in nursing practice: a case study approach. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 10(3), 199-207. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1985.tb00513.x

The Institute of Art and Ideas (2012). The Physical and Psychological Differences Between Men and Women [video]. Retrieved from http://iai.tv

University of Central Lancashire (n.d.). Sport and Exercise Physiology MSc [computer generated image]. Retrieved from www.uclan.ac.uk

the theory itself/publications
nursing metaparadigm
class discussion
Full transcript