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Slave Resistance in Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba

Ms. Flores MINI Project

Timothy Nieto

on 8 February 2013

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Transcript of Slave Resistance in Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba

Slave Resistance Slave Resistance Begins Violent Resistance Non-Violent Resistances Everyday Continuous Resistances Open Rebellions Europeans React There were many Violent Slave Rebellions in the Carribbean, wich included the slave rebellion of Saint Domigue (Haiti 1791-1804),Berbice (Guyana 1763), Jamiaca (1831),and Barbados (1816). Violent slave rebellions were very common and were usually sparked after years of abuse. Some violent acts of resistance that the slaves preformed icluded; Although there were many examples of violent slave rebellions, there were also a number of rebellions that didn't have slaves resorting to killing or poisoning their masters. Some of the methods they used were: Running away; Lying to their masters; commonly by lying about about working while really plotting an escape. Avoiding work whenever possible. Poising their masters' food Attacking their Master's in their sleep And less common, but not unheard of destroying crops So what happened in the rebellions? Let's start with before the rebellions; Before each rebellion there was usually a large stesser that makes the slaves want to rebel. For instance in the few years before the rebellion of Saint Domigue the French Revolution was taking place (1789).The French needed more resources than ever during this time of war which meant that slaves in Haiti (a French colony) would have to work extremely hard to provide them. At the time there were four main grups of people on the carribbean islands; White Slave owners Free blacks (many were slave owners who
hated slaves because they wanted to distinguished themselves as free) Black Slaves Maroons (run away slaves that took refuge in the mountinous places of an island).
They kept up traditional African practices like the religion Voodo, they practiced guerilla warfare, and sent signals to each other using conches. During the Rebellions (to try
and gain freedom). Even though each rebellion in the Carribean was unique they each bascially started the same way. Slaves would runaway, whether it was planned or unplanned. The Maroon population began to grow and out number the free white population Although resentful of the free black slave owners,white slave owners had to team up with them in order to fight back, (in the case of Saint Domigue they were even given full citizen ship) Many large attacks on the white slave owners were planned and each time a plantation was attacked the maroons would take slaves with them to free The free slave owner population of the country was usually overwhelmed. These rebellions were considered violent because the death toll on each side was never given an exact number, but it was considered to be in the thousands on each side. Rebellion Leaders Tacky (Jamaica) Coffy (Berbice) Toussaint Loveture (Saint Domigue) Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Henri Christophe, and Alexandre Petion (Saint Domigue after Toussaint's capture and death) The Europeans reacted in a variety of different ways to these rebellions... The first thing France did when it heard heard of the slaves in Saint Domigue was to send in the troops. However the first time tehy tried this only about a third of the troops arrived and were easily defeated.The another time Nepoleon sent 22,000 troops who were also defeated. Nepoleon onced asked a returning officer if sending in a thousand more troops would let France restablish slavery in Saint Domigue and he replied, "Not a thousand. Thousands....thousands....thousands....and thousands again". Another reaction Europeans had was to have the slave trade abolished. Slavery was still legal, it was just that new slaves could not be transported from one place to another. They did this for fear of slaves with ideas of freedom would arrive and start a rebellion. This fear arose in 1795 tow slave revolts had happened in Cuba, one in Puerto Rico, one in Grenada, and one in Venezuela. Also the largest slave rebellion in the United States on 1811 in Louisiana took place. All of these rebellions had to do with a slave from Saint Domigue that was either traded or brought along with their masters who fled from Saint Domigue at the first sign of rebellion. At first only the slave trade with Saint Domigue was abolished, but soon many European nations became paranoid and stopped the trade all together. Finally, few countries did this write away, but the end result was always abolition of slavery. Most of the time it was not out of good will, but out of fear that some countries abolished slavery and risk beatings for disobidience (Note these rebellions all included Non-Violent acts as well) This topic really ties into Non-Violent and Violent resistances, but ones that are more common. As stated before common was of everyday rebellions were avoiding work and poising masters, others included; Purposely getting all the other slaves to work slower (if more than one slave was working slowly the master could not find a reason for the problem Stealing personal items from their masters (this included money and the whips used for punishment) Secretly meeting with slaves from other escapes to plan escapes Resistance has existed since slavery began. You can't expect that when people first came up with the concept of slavery that the people who were chosen to be slaves just went with it. When Eurpeans first came up with the idea with
using Africans as slaves instead of the indgenous
people Africans did not take that sitting down. Of course it was not as if Africa did not trade some people on its own accord,but that is not to say those who were choosen did not struggle. However it seemed that captured African slaves were more rebellious in the beginning because they were un aware of the punishment given to those who rebelled alone. There was a rebellion called Tackcy's Rebellion in Jamaica. The leader by the name of Tacky had planned an attack to revolt against the white people in 1760. It occured on easter morning where Tacky led slaves to a shop and killed the owner. Thery stock piled on suplies such as gunpowder, guns, and anything they could use as a weapon. As they progresssed through the island They began to kill slave owners and gather more slaves to fight. It was so early in the morning that the majority of the owners were still asleep. Eventually the militia and armed troops managed to control the first outbreak. Slave rebellion in the Carribbean really sparked after the success in Saint Domigue. This gave slaves all over the world the idea that freedom was possible to obtain. It was like a small light of hope that gave slaves all the momentum they needed to rebel all over the Carribean and eventuall America Credits! Sources "Jamaican Slave Revolt." Socialist Review Contents. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr245/bennett.htm>. Then, By. "Slave Revolts Carribbean." OldSoul POETSTREE. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <http://whgbetc.com/mind/slave_revolts_caribbean1.html>. "Haiti: Revolution Part 2." Webster University. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/revolution/revolution2.htm>. Andrica Sanguinette Sources
General Info. Johnathan Cordero Open Rebellions Revolt-_How_the_Slaves_Protested-3 Timothy Nieto Non- Violent Rebellions http://www2.nalis.gov.tt/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=PI3VO%2FO%2B0Po%3D&tabid=228 There were ongoing rebellions throughtout the caribbean and latin america where there was a lot of blood shed. More slaves than slave owners. Most tactics used were based on hit and runs where the slaves would sneak around and kill a small group of people and run away. Bryan Sosa Violent Rebellions
Slave Rebellion Begins
European Reaction
Continuous Everyday Rebellion
Making the Presentation look sexy =p
(Everyone worked the smae amount and I just used their input and information in putting the final touches) Hope you didn't get Dizzy and thanks for watching! Hypothesis If the egg changes in mass and circumference while tested then osmosis and diffusion has occurred
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