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Australia and the World: a crash course
Transcript of Australia and the World: a crash course
So, the first Europeans to settler on the Australian continent were convicts.
Early Colonial Australia
In 1787 Captain Philip landed in what we today call Sydney, and established a British colony on land that belonged to the Cadigal people.
As time passed, more and more free settlers, and fewer and fewer convicts came, and the people in Australia began to think of themselves not as British colonists, but as "Australian Britons", and then eventually (though much later) as just "Australians".
In 1901 the Australian colonies became one Australian state
So, by the early 1900s Australia had a single government, and a population that began to feel like they were Australian.
13. Australia and War - quizz on gosoapbox
a crash course
It wasn't easy for the newcomers to survive in Australia: the Cadigal people had perfected their methods and strategies for living a good life in the region for generations, but the new were less well adapted to the environment.
1. Why did they do this?
2. What did Aboriginal people across Australia do to survive and flourish in Australia?
3. Which other country almost claimed Australia?
In 1787 the officer Watkin Tench described the first encounter between Captain Philip and the local population like this:
"The indians...showed no signs of resentment at the governor's going on shore. An interview commenced, in which the conduct of both the parties pleased each other so much that the strangers returned to their ships with a much better opinion of the natives than they landed with."
4. What happened to the relationship over the next few hundred years?
5. What did the settlers eventually make of Aboriginal people's right to Australia? Why?
Soon enough a small trickle of free settlers joined them,
hoping to make a living through *******, and from the 1850s ****.
7. What did the free settlers think of being lumped together with convicts? What did they do about it?
8. The form of colonisation that took place in Australia had parallells in the US, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa among other places. What do we call it?
While the British government was happy just to have somewhere to exile convicts (now that America had become independent and unwilling to do the service), some people in Britain saw Australia as a chance: a place to start a new, ideal society.
These free settlers were very invested in their new home land, and wanted it to grow into a well ordered, prosperous and civilised place, and convicts didn't really fit this picture: they were shabby, criminal, not very decent and would stain the new society with their presence. (the free settlers thought).
So the free settlers did two things:
1. Tried to stop convict transportation and get political rights.
2. Cultivated a "pioneer legend" of themselves as rugged adventurers on a mission to build a new society in the Australian outback, in spite of both convicts and Aboriginal people.
9. What does this mean?
10. When did this happen? Make an argument.
To join the show....
11. Go to the "Australia and Immigration" poll on gosoapbox. Give it you best shot.
1787 - 1880(ish)
Anyone who could find a ship to take them to Australia could go: free migration
1880(ish) - 1901
Racially exclusive policies are being implemented in some colonies (ex. NSW). Other colonies depend really heavily on coloured labour and want to allow Pacific Islanders to stay and work for them.
Beginning of restriction in some colonies
1901 - 1945
Immigration Restriction Act (1901) allows border protection to bar anyone who can't pass the dictation test.
6. Fill in the gaps
From a colony to a nation
What policy was this an articulation of?
1945 - 1972
White Australia Policy gradually dismantled
- refugees from the war accepted (begrudgingly)
- one restriction after the other disappears...
- but everyone is really worried, and keen that all immigrants become as English as possible.
Words like "wog" start to appear for those who don't...
1975 - now
(sort of, though borders have closed since the GFC)
Australia = Multicultural!!!!
I need a volunteer to help me draw a timeline on the whiteboard
The rest of you: come up with 5 phases in Australian immigration policy.
Immigration was clearly important to the colonists from the very beginning: whether it was to ban convict transportation, or bar the entry of people from Asia.
But to be able to do these things, the settlers needed their own governments
In lecture four I offered you the recipe of the Australian government....
Australian governmental system
1. The English Westminster system (people vote for bicameral Parliament, executive = Prime Minister, from the party with most votes, Monarch = head of state.
2. Some bits inspired by the American presidential system (upper house called the Senate (not House of Lords), and drawn not from peerage but from the various states.
3. Sprinkling of Chartism (social and political movement for universal and fair political rights)
Serves 22.68 million
- Westminster system
- Presidential system
Why did they bother?
- it would be beneficial for trade reasons (no customs between states.
- it would improve the ability of the Australian colonies to defend themselves, and enact foreign policy.
- it would allow Australians to control immigration better.
- people were beginning to feel Australian and proud of it (rather than just British).
12.Federation meant the birth of an independent Australian government. Before Australian colonial governments had __________ __________
Let's do hangman!!
Barton, Sir Edmund PROT 01.01.1901 – 24.09.1903 2 yrs, 8 mths, 24 days
Deakin, Alfred PROT 24.09.1903 – 27.04.1904 7 mths, 4 days
Watson, John Christian ALP 27.04.1904 – 17.08.1904 3 mths, 21 days
Reid, George Houstoun (later Sir George) FT1 18.08.1904 – 05.07.1905 10 mths, 18 days
Deakin, Alfred PROT1 05.07.1905 – 13.11.1908 3 yrs, 4 mths, 9 days
Fisher, Andrew ALP 13.11.1908 – 02.06.1909 6 mths, 21 days
Deakin, Alfred PROT 02.06.1909 – 29.04.1910 10 mths, 28 days
Fisher, Andrew ALP 29.04.1910 – 24.06.1913 3 yrs, 1 mth, 26 days
Cook, Joseph (later Sir Joseph) LIB 24.06.1913 – 17.09.1914 1 yr, 2 mths, 25 days
Fisher, Andrew ALP 17.09.1914 – 27.10.1915 1 yr, 1 mth, 11 days
Hughes, William Morris ALP 27.10.1915 – 09.02.1923 7 yrs, 3 mths, 14 days
NAT LAB 14.11.1916 – 17.02.1917
NAT 17.02.1917 – 09.02.1923
Bruce, Stanley Melbourne NAT1 09.02.1923 – 22.10.1929 6 yrs, 8 mths, 14 days
Scullin, James Henry ALP 22.10.1929 – 06.01.1932 2 yrs, 2 mths, 16 days
Lyons, Joseph Aloysius UAP 06.01.1932 – 09.11.1934 7 yrs, 3 mths, 2 days
UAP1 09.11.1934 – 07.04.1939
Page, Earle Christmas Grafton CP1 07.04.1939 – 26.04.1939 20 days
Menzies, Robert Gordon UAP 26.04.1939 – 14.03.1940 2 yrs, 4 mths, 4 days
UAP1 14.03.1940 – 29.08.1941
Fadden, Arthur William (later Sir Arthur) CP1 29.08.1941 – 07.10.1941 1 mth, 9 days
Curtin, John ALP 07.10.1941 – 05.07.1945 3 yrs, 8 mths, 29 days
Forde, Francis Michael ALP 06.07.1945 – 13.07.1945 8 days
Chifley, Joseph Benedict ALP 13.07.1945 – 19.12.1949 4 yrs, 5 mths, 7 days
Menzies, Robert Gordon (later Sir Robert) LP1 19.12.1949 – 26.01.1966 16 yrs, 1 mth, 8 days
Holt, Harold Edward LP1 26.01.1966 – 19.12.1967 1 yr, 10 mths, 23 days
McEwen, John CP1 19.12.1967 – 10.01.1968 23 days
Gorton, John Grey LP1 10.01.1968 – 10.03.1971 3 yrs, 2 mths
McMahon, William (later Sir William) LP1 10.03.1971 – 05.12.1972 1 yr, 8 mths, 25 days
Whitlam, Edward Gough ALP 05.12.1972 – 11.11.1975 2 yrs, 11 mths, 7 days
Fraser, John Malcolm LP1 11.11.1975 – 11.03.1983 7 yrs, 4 mths
Hawke, Robert James Lee ALP 11.03.1983 – 20.12.1991 8 yrs, 9 mths, 10 days
Keating, Paul John ALP 20.12.1991 – 11.03.1996 4 yrs, 2 mths, 20 days
Howard, John Winston LP1 11.03.1996 – 03.12.2007 11 yrs, 8 mths, 22 days
Rudd, Kevin ALP 03.12.2007 – 24.06.2010 2 years, 6 months, 21 days
Gillard, Julia ALP 24.06.2010 – 27.06.2013 3 years, 3 days
Rudd, Kevin ALP 27.06.2013 – 18.09.2013 2 months, 22 days
Abbott, Tony LP1 18.09.2013 – present
The experience of warfare massively facilitated this.
Australia and the US
The Anzac Legend
Suggests that Australian (and New Zealand) soldiers possessed a certain set of qualities, which they displayed on the battlefield of WWI (particularly at Gallipolli).
What were these qualities?
Australia and war
Australia and the US have been connected from the start:
- Convict transportation to Australia instead of the US after the American Revolution
- Australia was always compared to either Britain or the US: visitors would ask what was British and what was American about it.
- Many diggers had been on the American gold fields before they came to Australia.
But during WWII, the connection became more formal...
14. Why and how?
- The ANZUS treaty (1951)
- The Cold War (1945-1991)
- The Coalition of the Willing & the "war against terror"
15. Has this alliance benefited Australia?
16. What is the name of the theory that dominated Australian reponses to Communism and the Cold War?
17. Why did Australia join the invasion of Iraq?
What wars did Australian forces participate in as a result of the Cold War?
answer found here
Among others the Korea War, the Vietnam War, the Malayan Emergency...
Australia and Indonesia
- Australians and their government started out supporting the formation of Indonesia from Dutch West Indies after WWII.
- They were unimpressed with Sukarno's "non-alignment" strategy and fierce anti-imperialism (1949-1968).
- They liked Suharto's conservative military dictatorship better 1968-1998).
18. What does this mean?
In 1975, Indonesaia invaded East Timor. In the 1990s East Timor became an issue in the relationship between Australia and Indonesia.
19. Why? How come both Indonesia and East Timor have at times been angry with the Australian attitude to their conflict?
Australia and China
Draw a timeline of the Australian relationship to China
22. What does the saying “If China Sneezes we’ll catch more than a cold” mean?
20. What was the relationship between Australia and China like before 1949?
19. What does this image tell us about Australia and China? What made Australians feel this way?
21. How did it change throughout the decades after 1949?
Australia and Japan
- Australia and Japan have had a great deal of contact since first European settlement: Japanese people came here as ex. businessmen and pearl divers.
- Racial restriction policies from the 1880s offended the Japanese greatly: they felt they were as civilised as any western nation.
- The relationship deteriorated between WWI and WWII, until the point where the two countries ended up fighting each other in WWII.
- Australia was central to the occupation and reconstruction of Japanese society in the post-war era.
- Japan was Australia's primary trading partner until China took over.
- Since the early 2000s, security has eclipsed trade as the most important aspect of the relationship.
23. What is the one thing that the Australian and Japanese governments cannot see eye to eye on?
All Australian Prime Ministers
Much of this course, and the crash course I have now taken you through, treat the Australian nation as something that began when the British scared off the French from Botany Bay, and started a penal colony in Port Jackson.
We are used to telling the story of Australia like this:
It starts in Sydney, and spreads outwards.
In the reading for this week the author draws attention to how it is a choice to tell the story like this: it is one possible narrative, but not the only one. And it is one that focuses on the arrival of Europeans as the most significant event in Australian history.
The author suggests an alternative story: a story that starts in the north of the continent....
The region north of Australia was teeming with movement, trade and interaction: we have mentioned one part of this: the Macassan trad in sea slugs. But even before the Macassans began travelling to Australia for trade, people in the region would visit the northern tip of Australia and its Aboriginal peoples. When Europeans pick the version of Autstralian history they like best, Australia becomes a distant, isolated continent that they had to conquer and tame. But if you tell the story from the north, Australia turns out to be at the periphery of a closely connected and very vibrant part of the world.