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Basic Human Anatomy & Physiology Simplified

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Josee Fillion

on 22 December 2015

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Transcript of Basic Human Anatomy & Physiology Simplified

The branch of science associated with the structure of body parts
To study body parts, one must study

Life
Organ Sytems
Muscular System
Movement
Human Anatomy & Physiology Simplified
Living Organisms:
Respond to their surroundings, grow, reproduce, and ingest nutrients to obtain energy
Organisms Need
Water
Foods
Oxygen
Heat
Pressure
Homeostasis,
the condition of a stable internal environment,
is met when these external needs are met in the right proportions
Homeostatic mechanisms maintain homeostasis by self-regulating internal control systems via negative and postitive feedback responses
The Human Organism
Life's
Levels of Organization
Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Digestive
Respiratory
Urinary
Reproductive
Organ Systems
Organs
Cell
Organelle
Macromolecule-Molecule
Atom
Anatomy:
&
Physiology:
And the function of body parts
Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
Particle composed of 2 or more atoms
A structure with a specialized function within a cell
Basic unit of structure
and function
Group of similar cells
that perform a specialized function
Complex structures with
specialized functions
Integumentary System:
Skin
& its accessory structures
Skin is the largest organ in the body by weight.
The skin's Functions:
Protection
Temperature contol
Wound healing
Water retention
Housing sensory receptors
Biochemicals synthesis
Excretion of wastes
Vitamin D production

Skin Accessory Structures:
Hair
Nails
Sensory Receptors
Glands
Covers the entire body except:
Lips
Palms
Soles
Nipples
External reproductive organs
Protective covering on the ends of fingers and toes. Consist of a nail plate and nail bed. The base of the nail bed actively grows most.
Fingernails grow 3-4 X faster than toenails.
There are several types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands.
Humans are the only animal with sweat glands all over the body.
Sweating is the most efficient way of cooling off
1.Free nerve endings
2. Tactile (Meissner's) corpuscles
3. Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles

3 Types:
Tissues
Skeletal System
Groups of organs that
function closely together
Functions:
Support
Protect
Anchor for muscle attachment
House blood-producing cells
Store inorganic salts
Contrary to common belief, bones are alive,
and serve many purposes to the body
softer tissues
The adult body contains
206 Bones
The human skeleton accounts for about
15% of a persons weight
Major parts of a long bone:
Long
Bones
Short
Bones
Flat
Bones
Irregular
Bones
Bone Classification:
Muscles:
Specialized cells that pull on structures to which they are attached
Using chemical energy obtained from nutrients
ATP
Nervous System
Reproductive System
Cardiovascular System
Respiratory
Digestive System
Propel Body Fluids and Food
Distribute Heat
Provide Heartbeat
Support other structures
3 Types:
Skeletal Muscle
(voluntary)
Smooth Muscle
(involuntary)
Cardiac Muscle
(involuntary)
Feeling
Thinking
Remembering
Moving
Awareness
Impulse
Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerves connecting
the CNS to all body parts
Sensory
Motor
Integrative
PNS:
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous
System (PNS)
Voluntary
Skeletal Muscle
Involuntary
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Glands
Central Nervous
System (CNS)
Functions:
CNS
Endocrine System
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Endocrine Glands
Kidneys
Thymus
Secrete Hormones
Act on Target Cells
A Biological Communication
System
Made up of:
That:
The Blood Carries Hormones to the Target Cells
Hormone Secretions
Change Throughout
The Life Cycle
Female Reproductive System:
Organs and Glands that Produce, Nurture,
and Transport Sex Cells (gametes)
MALE
FEMALE
SPERM
OOCYTE
Primary Sex Organ:
Gamete:
2 TESTES
2 OVARIES
Secondary Sex Organs:
Internal:
2 UTERINE TUBES, UTERUS,VAGINA
External: LABIA MAJORA & MINORA, CLITORIS, VESTIBULAR GLANDS
Internal: 2 EPIDIDYMIDES, 2 DUCTUS DIFERENTIA, 2 EJACULATORY DUCTS, URETHRA, 2 SEMINAL VESICLES, PROSTATE GLAND, 2 BULBOURETHERAL GLANDS
External: SCROTUM, PENIS
Oocyte means
"egg cells" in Latin
Women are born with a set number of oocytes, where as men continuously produce sperm
The Pumping Heart and its Vessels
Closed
System
2 CIRCUITS:
Pulmonary
Circuit
Systemic
Circuit
Sends Oxygen Poor Blood
to Lungs to:
Increase Oxygen
Release Waste Carbon Dioxide
Sends Oxygen/Nutrient Rich
Blood to:
All Body Parts
Removes Wastes
Blue: Oxygen Poor Blood
RED: Oxygen Rich Blood
Cardiac Cycle:
Atrial Systole (contraction)
+
Ventricular Diastole (relaxation)
Ventricular Systole (contraction)
+
Atrial Diastole (relaxation)
All Rest (relax)
= 1 Heartbeat
The Heart Pumps about 7,000 Liters of Blood per Day
Oxygen Rich and Oxygen Poor Blood Never Touch or Combine Within the Body
System
Obtains Oxygen & Removes Carbon Dioxide
Via:
Respiration-Gas Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Cells
2 Tracts
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
NOSE
NASAL CAVITY
PARANASAL SINUSES
PHARYNX
LARYNX
TRACHEA
BRONCHIAL TREE
LUNGS
Remember Circulation
RED-
Oxygenate Blood
BLUE-
Oxygen Depleated Blood
Alveoli:
Tiny Structures, Covered in a Capillary Network, Where Gas Exchange Takes Place at the end of Respiratory Tubes Within the Lungs
Mechanical and Chemical Breakdown of Foods
& the Absorption of the Resulting Nutrients by Cells
Breaks Down Large Pieces of Food to Smaller Ones (no chemical change)
Breaks Food Down Into Simpler Chemicals (chemical change)
Alimentary Canal:
Mouth
Anus
to
Mastication: chewing, the first step of digestion
Digestive Tube- 2 openings
Urinary System
PAIR OF KIDNEYS
PAIR OF URETERS
URINARY BLADDER
URETHRA
Removes Salts, Nitrogenous Wastes
Appropriate Concentrations of Water & Electrolytes in Body Fluids
Regulates pH and Volume of Body Fluids
Assists in Control of Red Blood Cell Production/Blood Pressure
CONTENTS:
"renal"
Urine:
Produced after 3 Processes:
Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular Secretion
Immunity
Collection of Cells and Biochemicals that Travel in
Lymphatic Vessels, and the Organs and Glands that Produce them.
Lymphatic System
Function:
Transport Excess Fluid Away from Intertitial Spaces
Immunity-Living in a World with Varied Organisms
Lymph: Any Fluid that Enters Lymphatic Capillaries
Entwined with the Circulatory System
Works Cited:
Butler, Jackie, Rickie Lewis, and David Shier. Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015, Print.
Fillion, Josee
Culmination of Creation and Information

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Paristalsis: rhythmic wavelike motion propelling the contents of a tube
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