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Different forms of Energy
Transcript of Different forms of Energy
-the ability to do work or effect change
-it occurs in many forms and comes from
a variety of sources Different forms of Energy Elastic energy Thermal energy Chemical Energy Hydraulic energy Energy stored in an object due to its compression or extension Energy resulting from the random motion of all
particles in a substance Energy stored in molecular bonds Energy resulting from the flow of water Electrical energy Energy resulting from the ordered movement of electrons from one atom
to another Radiation Energy Energy contained in and transported by electromagnetic waves Wind Energy Energy resulting from the movement of air Sound Energy Energy contained in and transported by sound waves Nuclear Energy Energy stored in atomic nuclei Measuring Energy -In the International System of Units (SI), energy is expressed in joules (J).
-One joule corresponds to the energy required to move an object with the force of one newton over a distance of one metre.
-it is expressed as
1 J = 1 N x 1 M The Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transferred or transformed. The total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant. Energy Transfer- the movement of energy from one place to another Energy Transformation- the changing of energy from one form to another Energy Efficiency Humans can build machines to convert energy from one form to another but rarely is all the energy converted into a useful form. The rest is changed into another form or dispersed in the environment. ex. the friction of car parts converts energy produce from burning fuel into heat. Only 12% of the energy is used to run the car. ex. in a incandescent lightbulb only 5% of the energy consumed produces light. The energy efficiency of a machine or system corresponds to the percentage of energy consumed that is effectively transformed as intended. Energy
efficiency amount of used energy Amount of energy consumed = x100 Thermal Energy -energy contained in a substance, determined by the number of particles in the substance and their temperature
-results from the random movement of all the microscopic particles in a substance.
-the energy level reflects the degree of agitation Heat the transfer of thermal energy between two environments with different temperatures. Heat always passes from the warmer to the cooler environment Distinction between Temperature and Heat -the two are often confused
-temperature takes into account only the speed of the particles in a substance
-heat depends not only on the speed(degree of agitation) of the particles but also their mass (number of particles) Temperature a measure of the degree of agitation of the particles of a substance Specific Heat Capacity corresponds to the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celsius. the temperature of different substances increase at different rates when they heated. The amount of heat that must be absorbed by a substance to be raised by one degree is a specific characteristic of that substance Kinetic energy -The energy that an object possesses due to its motion
-the amount of kinetic energy depends on the objects mass and speed
-the heavier an object is and the faster it moves, the greater is its capacity to do work
-if an object's weight is doubled then its kinetic energy becomes twice as great
-if an object's speed is doubled then its kinetic energy is quadrupled Potential Energy -When people do work, such as lifting a hammer, the kinetic energy needed to do the work is transferred to the object as potential energy.
-When the hammer falls its potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy to drive the nail