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Transportation of CO2 and its Forms

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Calvin Cheng

on 21 November 2012

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Transcript of Transportation of CO2 and its Forms

Why transport CO2
Forms of Transportation
History of CO2 pipelines
CO2 Characteristics
CO2 Pipeline Challenges
Techno-economic analysis
CO2 pipeline project case study
CO2 slurry pipeline Calvin Cheng
Mec E 643
November 19, 2012 Transportation of CO2 and Its Forms Outline Forms of Transportation Truck Forms of Transportation Ships History of CO2 Pipelines The first large CO2 pipeline was the Canyon Reef Pipeline in 1972.

Today, there are approx. 2591 km of CO2 pipeline transporting 49.9 MtCO2/yr Scottish Carbon Capture & Storage Research Institute of Technology for the Earth (RITE) Source of CO2 is not at the end location

CO2 is mainly transported for 2 reasons:
CCS – Carbon Capture and Sequestration
EOR – Enhanced Oil Recovery Transportation of CO2 - Why Rail Comparison of Transportation Methods Transportation Method Comparison Oil & Gas Journal History of CO2 Pipelines
CO2 Compression and Transportation to Storage Reservoir , S.Wong Solid
Liquid
Gas
Dense Phase Liquid
Super Critical Phase CO2 Phase Characteristics Post-combustion
Pre-combustion
Oxyfuel combustion CO2 Source P. Seevam et. al, Transporting the Next Generation of CO2 for Carbon Capture and Storage: The Impact of Impurities on Supercritical CO2 pipelines Challenges
Impurities P. Seevam et. al, Transporting the Next Generation of CO2 for Carbon Capture and Storage: The Impact of Impurities on Supercritical CO2 pipelines Challenges
Impurities F. Ayello et. Al, Effect of Liquid Impurities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Supercritical CO2 Water is the impurity of most concern
The addition of water to supercritical CO2 leads to the formation of a condensed aqueous phase. Experimental analysis shows that 2g of water/kg of CO2 is required to form aqueous phase at 75.8 Bar and 40ºC.
Corrosion rate of 1.2 mm/year were experimentally obtained with 100 ppm of liquid water Challenges
Impurities Carbon steel is widely used for pipeline due to their low cost, but are susceptible to CO2 corrosion
New metallurgies of steel are required. Challenges
Corrosion Alternative pipe materials such as polyethylene and other plastics can be used to address corrosion issues, however have low pressure capacity and sensitivity to external loading.

New reinforced thermoplastic pipe technology is being developed. Challenges
Corrosion Explosive decompression
CO2 cools dramatically during decompression so materials need to be compatible Challenges
Sealing materials and gaskets Ductile fracture propagation is a significant concern in CO2 pipelines due to the decompression behavior of CO2

Highlights the importance in crack arrestors and high toughness pipe for CO2 Challenges
Fracture Propagation There have only be 12 incidents of CO2 pipeline leaks with no deaths to date.
New CO2 pipelines may be built in major population centers so safety is a key consideration
CO2 is an asphyxiant and would form a vapour cloud around the leak. CO2 is denser than air and would accumulate in low lying areas.
The cooling effect of CO2 could cause the area around the leak to become brittle.
Impurities in the CO2, especially H2S, could have substantial impact on the nature of the CO2 leak. Challenges
Safety N. Ghazi, J.Race, Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis of CO2 Pipelines Techno-Economic Analysis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darcy_friction_factor_formulae Techno-Economic Analysis N. Ghazi, J.Race, Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis of CO2 Pipelines Techno-Economic Analysis N. Ghazi, J.Race, Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis of CO2 Pipelines Techno-Economic Analysis CO2 Sense, A CCS Pipeline for Yorkshire and the Humber CCS Pipeline System in Yorkshire and the Humber, UK Case Study 60 MtCO2 emissions per year.

Potential locations for CCS and EOS offshore

CO2 transport network could add
55,000 jobs in the region
₤£31 billion net financial benefit to region over 25 years Case Study Applying the techno-economic model to the case study project:

48” pipeline (est. 244 km long)
25.57 mm wall thickness
Total CAPEX: ₤£580M

Including OPEX costs, the levelized CO2 transport cost is ₤£1.20/ton (versus ~£16/ton total CCS cost) Case Study To improve the economics of CO2 pipelines, one concept is to use supercritical CO2 in a slurry pipeline to transport marketable products such as sulphur, petroleum coke, limestone and other to market to generate additional income. CO2 Slurry Water slurry pipelines are used to transport coal.

CO2 is less abrasive than water (2 to 3 times pipeline life)

CO2 is more efficient in carrying a solid (85% coal in CO2 slurry compared to 50% in water)

Cheaper to de-slurry CO2 Slurry Questions? Pipelines W. Chang et. al, Compare the Corrosion of 3%Cr Steel with X65 Pipeline Steel in Subsea CO2 Top-Of-Line Corrosion Environment Challenges
Impurities P. Seevam et. al, Transporting the Next Generation of CO2 for Carbon Capture and Storage: The Impact of Impurities on Supercritical CO2 pipelines
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