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Transcript of concept map
Chapters 1 - 9
Samantha Malero Chapter Two: Methods Experiment Naturalistic Observation Case Study a methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. Recording data by observing subject without manipulation Long term study with one subject or small number of subjects Dependent Variable: what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. Independent Variable:
the factors within an experiment that are manipulated by the experimenter that may affect the results of the experiment Get Sample Is experiment ethical? People Animals Random Sample Validity : refers to the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world Reliability : the extent to which an experiment, test, or measuring procedure yields the same results on repeated trials Results causation Correlation Positively Skewed Negatively Skewed Chapter Three: Biological Bases of Behavior Nervous System Neuron: Neuroanatomy:
Synaptic Gap CNS Brain Spinal Cord Cerebellum Muscles can move Pons Connects hindbrain to midbrain Medulla Heart + Breathing PNS Autonomic Somatic sympathetic parasympathetic Hindbrain Forebrain Hypothalamus memory Amygdala emotions Hypothalamus body temp.
hunger, thirst Thalamus Messenger of sensory signals Cerebral Cortex Parietal Lobe Sensory Cortex Occipital Lobe Eyes Temporal Lobes Ears Wernicks Area Controls understanding of Speech Key People: Ivan Pavlov
Albert Bandura Types of Learning Classical Conditioning A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response. Operant Conditioning A process of behavior modification in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior. Unconditioned Stimulus
Conditioned Response Negative Reinforcement:
the reinforcing of a response by giving an aversive stimulus when the response is not made and omitting the aversive stimulus when the response is made Positive Reinforcement: An event, a circumstance, or a condition that increases the likelihood that a given response will recur in a situation like that in which the reinforcing condition originally occurred. Types of Reinforcers: Primary Reinforcers
Secondary Reinforcer Dogs salivated to the sound of the bell in expectation of food because the bell had rang before Pavlov presented the food Observational Learning is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others. Latent Learning Latent learning is when an organism learns something in its life, but the knowledge is not immediately expressed. Insight Learning occurs when one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem Chapter Six: Learning Chapter Five: States of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness Conscious Level Nonconscious Level Preconscious Level Subconscious Level Unconscious Level Info. about yourself and your environment that you are currently aware of. Body Processes controlled by the mind and that we are usually never aware of, such as our heart beat. Info. about yourself and your environment that you are not currently thinking of, but could be. Info that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior. Believed to be the deepest part of the Psyche Sleep Cycle 5 Stages of sleep REM sleep believed to build memories and consolidate what occurred during the day Sleep Disorders Insomnia
Sleep Apnea Dreams Activation - synthesis Theory Information - processing Theory dreams are looked at as biological phenomena This theory points out that stress during the day will increase the number and intensity of dreams during the night. Hypnosis Ernest Hilgard Posthypnotic Amnesia
Hypnotic Suggestibility Chapter 7: Cognition Models of Memory Types of cognition Three-Box/ Information-Processing Model Sensory Memory Levels of Processing Model Memories are neither long term nor short term. They are processed deeply or shallowly. Long Term Short Term Sensory Encoding Encoding Retrieval Information lost because it was not encoded Information lost because it is not encoded Information lost due to retrieval failure Retrieval Recognition is the process of matching a current event or fact with one already in memory Recall is Retrieving a memory with an external cue Herman Ibbinghaus established that the order of items in a list is related to whether or not we will recall them Constructive Memory Can report false details of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that never occurred. Forgetting Decay is forgetting because we do not use a memory or connections to a memory for a long period of time. Interference can be broken down into Retroactive Interference , and Proactive Interference Language Thinking and Creativity Chapter 4: Senses Energy Senses Hearing Uses Energy in the forms of waves Touching Gate Control Theory: some pain messages have higher priority than others Vision Light is gathered within the eye: cornea, pupil, iris Transduction: translation of incoming stimuli Visual cortex, in the brain Chemical Senses Taste Sweet; salty; sour; bitter; unami Smell Olfactory bulb gathers messages from olfactory receptors Body Senses Kinesthetic senses give feedback about the positionand orientation of specific body parts Vestibular sense tells us how our body is oriented Absolute threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus we can detect Chapter 9: Developmental Psychology Research Methods Cross sectional: use participants of different ages. Longitudinal: studies one group of participants over a period of time. Prenatal Influences Genetics Teratogens Motor/ Sensory Development Reflexes Rooting Reflex Sucking Reflex GraspingReflex Moro Reflex Babinski Reflex Motor Development Parenting Attatchment Theory Stage Theories Cognative Development Moral Development Gender and Development