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HUMAN CADAVER

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by

Atharva Kulkarni

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of HUMAN CADAVER

The Digestive system
Pulmonary Artery
Left Ventricle
The digestive system is a group of organs that work together to convert food into basic energy, nutrients and waste. The digestive system breaks down food into usable material. After food is eaten by the mouth (
which uses chewing of the teeth and the chemical breaking down of food of the saliva, it breaks down food
), the food pieces go through the throat and down the esophagus, which connects the throat to the stomach, and carries food down to the stomach. Speaking of which, the stomach is a a muscular sac that stores chewed food. Mucus is there to protect the stomach from digesting itself. Hydrochloric acid digests proteins and breaks them up. The stomach transports the digested food to the small intestine, which extracts most nutrients and gets bile from the liver,
which produces the bile.
Any extra bile is stored in the gall bladder, which also creates bile. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine and regulates the amount of sugar in the blood, completing the chemical digestion of foods. The pancreas also releases lipase into the small intestine. Lipase helps absorb fat into the body. Any extra food is put through the large intestine, which extracts water and any remaining nutrients, breaks down the waste, and moves feces into the anal canal for removal from the body. The digestive system connects to the excretory system, because the feces leaves the large intestine and into the excretory system (anal canal). This system provides the nutrients for all the other systems so they can continue to function. It work closely with the circulatory system to make sure nutrients get around the body.
Aortic Arch
Superior Vena cava
Tricuspid Valve
Right Atrium
Inter-ventricular Septum
Mitral Valve
This system, made up of the heart,blood and blood vessels is responsible for transporting nutrients throughout the body. This system is also responsible for removing waste products and transporting oxygen and other nutrients through the body. This system works closely with the respiratory system, endocrine system, immune system and digestive system to help transport hormones and nutrients around the body. It also pumps blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood one way, there are valves that stop the blood from going backward. The heart can be thought of as 2 pumpmsp
Small intestine
Large intestine
Gallbladder
Liver
Esophagus
Stomach
Pancreas
Transverse Colon
Descending Colon
Duodenuem
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Lung
Pulmonary Blood vessels
Bronchioles
Alveolar Sac
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Cerebellum
Occipital Lobe
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/-nature/video-see-a-thought-move-through-a-living-fishs-brain-9223326/
The lungs are the air ways of the body. In here the CO2 is diffused out of the blood cell and O2 is diffused into it. This gas exchange allows waste to be removed and nutritional gases to enter the body. The nose is the entrance and exit of the air and also filters the air using mucus and cilia. Air goes down the trachea and into the lobes of the lungs. The exchange happens in the alveoli.
http://www.footprints-science.com/flash/Alveoli.swf
The skeletal system is basically every bone and joint in the body. A bone is a complex living organ which is made up of cells, protein fibers and minerals. It is not only a rock like structure but also has blood vessels attached to it.The skeleton acts as a protection system for the entire body, as well as providing attachment points, allowing the muscle to to provide movements for the joints. The skeleton can't move by itself and is connected to muscles to by tendons and ligaments. When the muscles move the skeleton also moves to move your body. Special bones located in the ribs and hips contain a jelly like substance called marrow, which makes red blood cells and is an essential part of the human body.
In the average adult human body, there's a total of 206 bones with various shapes and sizes.
Major bone areas:

Skull: Comprised of 22 bones, all which are fused together except for the mandible. These bones are not fused together when young, to allow brain growth and development, but fuse together when older to allow strength and protection. The mandible remains as a movable jaw.

Vertebrae and Spine: There's 26 vertebrae which make up the vertebral column. The spine or vertebrae is at the back of your body and connects the hip bones to the neck and skull bones.

Ribs and Sternum: Under your head but above your stomach. The sternum is in the center of your body and holds the ribs in place. The ribs are used as protection for vital organs and tissue, such as lungs and the hearts. There are a total of 12 ribs, 7 of which are true (They connect to the Sternum) and 5 that are considered "false ribs" (3 are connected to the cartilage of the seventh true rib, 2 of which do not connect to the Sternum).

Medulla Oblongata
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Telencephalon
Cerebellum
http://www.footprints-science.com/flash/Alveoli.swf

Spooky scary skeletons!!!!!!!!
Excretory System
The Excretory System is responsible for "Excreting" (getting rid of) waste that the (human) body produces
The body can get rid of water and other forms of waste (such as carbon and salt) through breathing and sweating.
The Liver converts ammonia, a very harmful substance, to urea, a less harmful substance.
This (CO(NH)2) is then delivered to the bloodstream to be filtered by the kidney(s).
Your kidney's job in the excretory system is to filter blood. Clean blood goes back to your bloodstream while substances such as urea are taken out, mixed with water (to create urine) and then transported to the bladder through the ureter. The bladder stores the urine until it can be excreted.
(May I warn you that this is a highly inaccurate representation of what the kidney/nephron actually looks like.)
We can get rid of waste and water through urine and feces.
Feces are what isn't absorbed by your body.

Fun fact: Food/feces can be stored in your body for up to 3 days! (Most of which are spent in the large intestine.)
Midbrain
Brain stem
Lol appendix
.
This is the big toe named steve
The Immune System
Keeps Pathogens out
First line of Defense
Skin and Mucus Membranes
Inside that is exposed to outside is lined with Mucus Membranes, treated same as outside of body.
Mucus Membranes produce Mucus, which traps and expels antigens
Inflammatory Response
Mast cells look for sketchy things, if finds something sketchy, releases histamine, makes blood cells more permeable, allowing things to rush there, causing inflammation.
White Blood Cells have VIP access anywhere (except for brain, heart, and spinal cord). Can open up capillaries in bloodstream to get to places faster
Innate Immune System
All animals have it
Kills anything that looks a little bit sketchy
Uses Phagocytes.
Neutrophil
Mobile
Eats antigens
Dies after has eaten 1 antigen
If a group of Neutrophils die in a close area (say an open wound) it forms pus!
Macrophages
Not very mobile
Can eat up to 100 antigens before dying
Can detect rogue cells (example: Cancer cells) and eats them
Dendritic cells
On outside of body
Eats pathogens on outside of body
Natural Killer Cells
Only Cell in innate immune system that can eat other human cells
Patrols human cells, if finds one that is not healthy, then eats it
Acquired immune system
Not many animals have
Retains information about pathogens already encountered
Uses lymphocytes
More complex than innate immune system
Helper T Cell
Directs immune system activity
Records information about pathogens
When Helper T Cell finds pathogen, clones itself. 2 clones: Effector cells which spread information and memory cells, which remember information
2 Types of Responses:
Cell mediated response: When cell is already infected
Humoral Response: When pathogen is in the body's fluids but has not infected a cell yet
T cells:

Mostly responsible for the Cell mediated response
Cytotoxic T Cell
If a human cell is infected, the Cytotoxic T Cell will patrol the area until it finds the infected cell and then dissolve the cell
Pons
Corpus Callosum
The thyroid Gland secretes thyroxine which is a hormone that affects metabolism
Antigen - anything related to a pathogen; anything that is not supposed to be in your body
Antigen Presentation
Antigen Presentation
B Cells
Mostly Responsible for Humoral Response
B Cell
Each one has specialized antibodies for specific pathogen
The hypothalamus is the connection between the endocrine system and the nervous system. It often talks to the pituitary to make changes within the body. Hormones are chemical messengers that have target cells to keep in check the body's behavior.
Patrols body until finds pathogen or directed by T Cell
Once finds pathogen, clones itself into 2 types of clones: Effector/Plasma cells, which creates antibodies (200 antibodies per second) and memory cells, which record information
There are 3 types of muscles in the body. Skeletal, Visceral and Cardiac
Muscular System
Thank you for Listening
"Acetylcholine Receptors." Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <https://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2005_11/Page1.htm>.

Crash Course Biology. Perf. Hank Green. Youtube. Film

Kratz, Rene, and Donna Rae Siegfried. Biology for Dummies. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2010. Print.

Wesely, Addison. "Cells and Systems." Science in Action 8. Addison Wesely, 2001. Print.

"What Are Neurotransmitters?" What Are Neurotransmitters? Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <https://www.neurogistics.com/TheScience/WhatareNeurotransmi09CE.asp>.

Bibliography
The lymphatic system is also part of the innate immune system and adaptive immune system. It acts as a fluid filterer filtering out pathogens from the blood
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