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Transcript of ISLAM
Grace Bergstrom, Tessa Meyer, Bailey Borree, Samantha Olson
How Islam Spread
How Islam Came to Be
Muhammad was worried about the people's morals in Mecca and began to meditate
He then heard the voice of the angel Gabriel who said he was a messenger from God
Khadija (his wife) advised him to accept his role
She was the first to convert to Islam
Muhammad devoted his life to spreading Islam, but few people listened.
He left on a journey for Yathrib known as the hijra.
This is a turning point for Islam
Muhammad was welcomed in Medina, where there were Muslim converts
There Was an Army of Muslim Arabs
It marched from victory to victory against the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire, as well as taking the Palestinian empire.
731 C.E.- The army moved North into France and tried to settle there, but the Frank forces defeated them at the battle of Tours
The Arab forces (carrying Islam with them) ruled parts of Spain for centuries, but they didn't get any farther into Europe.
They never took Constantinople either.
690s C.E.- Muslim Arabs conquered and occupied cities of North Africa
Early 700s C.E.- Arab Muslims had conquered the Berbers
Under Arab rule, Islam replaced Christianity
Reasons for Success:
The Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire were weak
The people welcomed Arabs as liberators from harsh empires
The Arabs had bold, efficient fighting methods
Turks and Mongols
The Turks migrated and adopted Islam
They built a large empire across the fertile crescent, and spread Islam
The Mongols also adopted Islam and invaded South West Asia, Russia, and India.
Traders also carried Islam to many new regions
Countries Affected by the Religion
The Muslim population is expected to increase around 35% in the next 20 years
72 Countries today have a million or more Muslim people
Top 10 Muslim Countries
Islam is monotheistic
Allah is the god of the Islamic religion, he is believed to be the creator of everything
Muhammad is known as the prophet of the Islamic religion
He received the word of Allah
The Qur'an is the word of Allah in book form
It was written to be listened to and lived out by mankind
5 Pillars of Islam
Verbally speaking their allegiance to Allah
Saying 5 prayers every day (salats)
During Ramadan everyone is supposed to fast from sunrise to sunset
Once every year, every Muslim must donate at least 2.5% of their saved money.
Muslims must make a journey at least once to Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Monotheistic means that one god created and ruled over the universe
Women's Role in Islam
Women are highly respected
They are known as the foundation of the Islamic Household
Women have full control over their marital partners and are in charge of raising the children
Women couldn't wear tight clothing, anything transparent, or makeup
*There may be differences in spelling and pronunciation for these practices
Caliph- a political and religious leader
A caliph leads a caliphate, an Islamic state
When Muhammad died, the people assigned caliphs.
Abu Bakr (Muhammad's best friend)
Ali (Muhammad's cousin)
Muhammad lived CE 570-CE 632
He was born in Mecca
Women are also expected to cover their hair and body when they become teenaged.
- The beginning of the Islamic liturgical year
- the 12th of Rabi Al-Awwal
The prophet Muhammad's birthday
newer holiday, sometimes considered Bid'ah
celebrated in some countries but not others
At the time of his death, he had nine wives and one concubine
He worked as a shepherd and became a successful merchant
He was troubled by the problems in Mecca and meditated often
He heard the archangel Gabriel tell him that he was a prophet from God.
He then proceeded to tell others about what God had told him and founded the Islamic religion
He was the first caliph
The community chose him to be their leader
Some Arab tribe leaders didn't approve at first, and therefore withdrew from the Islamic religion, but later they were reunited in the Islamic faith.
There are no current caliphs of the Islamic faith.
Muslims do not eat or drink:
Meat that hasn't been killed in the proper way (Halal)
Makrooh- Discouraged, but allowed
Featured in many cuisines
Is often at many Muslim funerals
A comfort food
Eaten during Ramadan after the fasting
Muezzin- a mosque leader
What Happens After Death
When a person dies, they immediately go into an intermediate phase between death
There they are questioned by angels about religion, prophets, and the Lord
Resurrection only happens at the end of the world
They conquered the Balkans and ruled them in the 14th and 15th centuries
The Muslim armies attacked Europe in two sweeps.
They conquered Spain completely in 732 C.E.
By 1492 C.E. Spain was recaptured by Christians
Christian Europe and the Muslim Empire were rivals
At the end of the world, an angel blows a horn 2 times
The Horn is blown the first time, and all the people of the Earth will become unconscious except those spared by God.
Everyone is resurrected from thier earthly bodies to enter into the 3rd and final stage of life, then the Horn is blown again.
God will then gather all the peoples gathered and "The angels will drive all human beings ... to the Great Plain of Gathering. People will stand and wait for judgment and humanity will sweat in agony. The righteous will be sheltered under the shade of God's Magnificent Throne."
Officially started in 1200 C.E.
Leaders of the Islamic faith were worried about the worldly interests of caliphs and the sharing of knowledge that developed between Muslim scholars and Greek scholars.
Wanted a stricter focus on religion and purer hearts, minds, and bodies
They borrowed ideas from Christian movements and Buddhism and created Sufism
Sufis have very emotional worship and very intense rituals. They are also more strict and strive for purity.
- The celebration ending Ramadan
- Celebrates Abraham's willingness to obey
God by sacrificing his son
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During Ramadan everyone is supposed to fast from sunrise to sunset, drink no water, eat no food, no chewing gum.
If there are health difficulties, the person in question must give food to the poor for every day they miss.
After sunset there is usually a large feast.
Fasting is called Sawn in the Qur'an
- 9th and 10th days of Muharram
The day when Moses and the Israelites were saved by God from Pharoah of Egypt as they crossed the Red Sea
Hussein ibn Ali killed in the Battle of Karbala on the second day
Percentage of Muslims by Country
Image courtesy of cliparthut.com
Percentage Clipart. N.d. Google Image Result for Http://www.cliparthut.com/clip-arts/478/islam-world-map-478776.png. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.