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david figuracion

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of PHILOSOPHY

Introduction to


The Milesians
Called to the first philosophers since
they came from the seaport town of Miletus
asking questions like, “What are the
things really like?” and “How can we
explain the process of change in things?”
The Milesians


He was a contemporary of Greek king CROESUS and statement Solon. He earned the title of “First Philosopher” of Western civilization.
He assumed that some single element that contained its own principle of action of change, layout the foundation of all physical reality. For Thales, this one was water, for all things have moist.
The primary stuff out of which all specific things come is an indefinite or boundless REAL-The indeterminate boundless is the originated and indestructible primary substance of things, yet it also has eternal motion.
Various specific elements came into being as they separated off from the original substance.
designated air as the primary substance from which all thing come.
To explain how air is the origin of all things, he argued that things are what they are by virtue of how condensed of expanded the air is that makes up those things.
Air is everywhere.
All Things
are Number
Health is the harmony or balance or proper ratio of certain opposites.
They believe some relation between the harmonies of music and the harmony of a person’s interior life they discovered that the length of the strings of a musical instrument is proportionate to the actual interval of the sounds they produced.
They build numbers out of individual units, using pebbles to count.
"Everything is in Flux"
Heraclitus assumed that there must be something that changes and he argued that this something is
He also proposed the idea of the logos(God’s Universal Reason). For Him, there is only one basic reality, namely Fire, and this material substance Heraclitus calls the one, or God.
He was a
pantheist – that God is identical with the totally of things
in the universe.
The one - the entire universe consist of one thing , which never changes, has no parts & can never be destroyed.
According to him all such changes and diversity is an illusion.
Something is & something is not.

"the many"
this particles are four eternal material elements, namely, earth, air, fire & water, these 4 elements he believed, are changeless & eternal and can never be transformed into something else, but instead, they are mixed to create an object.
- He explained the process of change with the
2 forces,
"Mind and Matter"
Each part contains what is in the whole of reality, each thing having a special “portion” of everything in it.
process of which the matter is formed into things is by separation. This process of separation is continuous and there is a constant progress in it
The Atomists
Leucippus was the founder of atomist school.
Everything is made of atoms, including empty space or the void.
To say that there is void is to say that void is something
Explained the existence of things through the combination of atoms and destruction of things as a result of separation of atoms.
Convinced that the surest way to attain reliable knowledge was through the practice of disciplined conversation, as intellectual midwife
A form of inquiry and discussion based on asking and answering questions of stimulate etica; thinking and illuminate ideas.
>Plans to bring changes the impiety against his own father

Founded the academy of Athens- the first university to emerge in history of Western Europe.
Plato composed more than 20 philosophical dialogues which are commonly placed into 3 groups

Allegory of the Cave
Theory of Forms
• Forms have independent existence
• Forms originally existed in the “mind of God” or the supreme principle of rationality
• The form is the cause of the essence of the thing, the thing participates with the form, and the thing imitates the form.
• Forms are those changeless, eternal, and non material essences or patterns of which the actual visible objects we see are only poor copies.

Level of Knowledge
- we get here least amount of reality. It only presents images/ illusions.

- the state of mind induced by seeing action actual objects.
- There is a degree of certainty that’s seeing games give us but this not absolute certainty.

- deals with visible things not simply with their vision of them but rely instead on our intellects.

Perfect intelligence
- grasps the totality of the relation of everything to everything else.

-He founded his own school Lyceum.

- He invented formal logic.

Concept of Happiness
-Happiness is self sufficient and final.
-It is the ultimate and purpose of human existence.

Concept of Virtue
Virtue is choosing in accordance with the mean.
Golden mean
Golden mean is the middle ground between excess and deficiency.
It is the appropriateness in a given particular situation

Hellenistic Philosophy
Hellenistic Christianity
was the attempt to reconcile Christianity with Greek philosophy, beginning in the late 2nd century. Drawing particularly on Platonism and the newly emerging Neoplatonism, figures such as Clement of Alexandria sought to provide Christianity with a philosophical framework
the purpose of life was to live in virtue, in agreement with nature
We must direct our attention primarily to the physical world because we are primarily physical beings
Happiness cannot be attained as long as we fail to understand to understand its nature: so the aim of philosophy must be correct understanding to happiness
Reason or clarity of mind , is what must determine what is and what is not.
Through discipline we cleanse the mind of confusion.

is a system of philosophy based upon the teaching of Epicurus
Epicurus believe that everything that exist is consist of eternal atom
Believe that God did not control the nature and not to afraid death because atoms makes up body and minds came apart, and dead people will not feel pain after death
Pleasure is the standard of goodness. For through pleasure people learn to have the act of choice and avoidance

By controlling our attitudes people may seek happiness
Theory of Knowledge – Open the idea of theory of nature and provides the conception of truth
Believed that matter is the basis of all reality
God is Everything – natures origin comes from God, people are under the control of Logos or God
God is the one who determine a person will be


St. Augustine
God is the creator of all things.
Considered the father of Orthodox Theology and the greatest of the four great fathers of the Latin Church (along with St. Ambrose, St. Jerome and St. Gregory)
2 basic principle in the universe
1. Principle of light or goodness
2. Principle of darkness or evil

body is composed of darkness.
Faith seeking understanding (fides quaerens intellectum)
Unless you believe, you will not understand
Clear thinking is possible only under the influence of God’s grace.
Philosophy is love of God: it is then, religious. Christianity, as presenting the full revelation of the true God, is the only full and true philosophy.

There is only one thing that we cannot doubt and that is our doubt.
There are three grades or levels of existence: mere being, living being, and rational being.
“Man is a rational substance constituted of soul and body”.
Physically we are free, yet morally bound to obey the law. The Eternal law is God Himself.
Human beings begin with original sin and are therefore inherently evil.
Evil is not anything real but merely the absence of good.

St. Thomas Aquinas
Argues for the actuality and in corporeality of God as the unmoved mover and describes how God moves through His thinking
Argues for a connection between the virtuous man and God by explaining how the virtuous act is one towards the blessedness of the Beatific Vision (beata visio).
The last part of the
is on Christ and was unfinished when Thomas died. In it, he shows how Christ not only offers salvation, but represents and protects humanity on Earth and in Heaven. This part also briefly discusses the sacraments and eschatology.
supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction:
 as a powerful, human-like, supernatural being, or as the deification of anesoteric, mystical or philosophical entity or category;
 as the "Ultimate", the summum bonum, the "Absolute Infinite", the "Transcendent", or Existence or Being itself;
 as the ground of being, the monistic substrate, that which we cannot understand; and so on.

• Plato describes prisoners living in a large cave from childhood chained by their legs and necks facing a blank wall. The prisoners only see the shadows projected on the wall from things passing in front of the fire behind them, and begin to designate names to these shadows. The prisoners, then, recognize as reality only the shadows formed on the wall. Plato explains how philosophers are like a prisoner freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows he sees on the wall are just shadows of real objects, as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners
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