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Transcript of Salvador Dali
Individuals who influenced Dali
The Classic Period After World War II
Rates of disorders in different artist
Psychosis in great painters vs “normal” people
Cluster C personality disorders
All of his efforts to improve techniques that were already mastered did not gain him any significant fame. He tried to improve many different styles of art, such as Impressionism, Pointillism, Futurism, Cubism, and Neo-Cubism. Nevertheless, he sought to fulfill the needs of his mental and social life through a new form of art. This new style of art was Surrealism that allowed Dali to express all of his “erotic desires” and at the same time change the way the world viewed art.
His new style of art
Psychological illness that was inherited
Theories of Dali’s Mental Illness
Used computerized procedure to provide diagnose of psychotic illness and the presence or absence of the personality disorder listed in the DSM
Dali possibly suffered from Cluster A and Cluster B Personality Disorders
Instability needed to create great art
It was all an act
Alcohol and Drugs
Consciously created “Artistic ” personality
The style of Salvador Dali was the most famous and most creative of the twenty-first century because he developed and nourished a style that was insignificant before his time. The dominant themes in his career revolved around his childhood sexual desires and on the study of the unconscious mind. Gala’s presence in his life greatly relieved of many mental complication, which allowed him to incorporate other themes into his works later in his career.
"You have to systematically
create confusion, it sets creativity free.
Everything that is contradictory creates life."
Born Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech On May 11, 1904 in Figueres, Spain near the south of France.
Salvador Dalí i Cusí(father) & Felipa Domenech Ferrésa(mother).
Dalí had a bother also named Salvador Dalí (1901-1903) and a sister named Ana María (1908-)
When he was five, his brother died of gastroenteritis, Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe.
By age 10 he was already an accomplished artist and was sent to an art school.
Dalí was frequently expelled from school.
Once for telling 3 art professors he knew more about art than all of them together.
Meeting Gala was the most important event in the artist's life and decisive for his future career. She was a Russian immigrant and ten years older than Dali.
She became his companion, his muse, his sexual partner, his model in numerous art works and his business manager.
In 1931, Dali painted one of his most famous works, The Persistence of Memory.
In 1933 Salvador Dali had his first one-man show in New York. One year later he visited the U.S. for the first time supported by a loan of US$500 from Pablo Picasso. To evade World War II, Dali chose the U.S.A. as his permanent residence in 1939.
Besides creating a number of great paintings, Dali caused the attention of the media by playing the role of a surrealist clown. He made a lot of money and was contemptuously nicknamed Avida Dollars (greedy for dollars) by Andre Breton.
Dali became the darling of the American High Society. His art works became a popular trademark and besides painting he pursued other activities - jewelry and clothing designs for Coco Chanel or film making with Alfred Hitchcock.
Dali and Gala in the U.S.A
In the 1960s, he began work on the Dali Theatre and museum in his home town of Figueres. This proved to be an important body of his work.
In 1968, Dalí filmed a humorous television advertisement for Lanvin chocolates. In this, he proclaims in French "Je suis fou du chocolat Lanvin!" ('I'm crazy about Lanvin chocolate') while biting a morsel causing him to become crosseyed and his moustache to swivel upwards.
Salvador Dali's Museums
1922 Academia De San Fernando, Madrid, Spain
Influences: Classical Art, Dadaism, and Cubism
1923 suspended and also arrested
A Rebellious Side
The Birth of Surrealism
Between 1926-1929 Dali met the most important people of his life (Gala and Pablo)
Surrealism was a perfect fit for Dali, as surrealist believed it was there duty to shock and disturb the beholder
Early surrealist themes: the measure of man’s universe, sensations, collage, and sexual symbolism
Dali became well known for his art and also his eccentric antics
Developed Paranoid-Critical Method technique, inspired by Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams
“Give me two hours a day of activity, and I'll take the other twenty-two in dreams.”
Only One Surrealist to Rule them All
Ants- Decay, Death, and Strong Sexual Desire
Melting Clocks- Time isn’t Rigid
Elephants- human’s enviable tie to reality and pursuit of fantasy (the desire for creation)
Egg- hope and love
Drawers- the sins and complexes of humans
Crutches- weakness and ability for success
Burning Giraffe- male cosmic monster of apocalypse or Hitler
Food- childhood urge to cook
Phallic symbols- Freudian influence
Instruments of mutilation- sado-masochistic nature
Butterfly- Soul or Greek symbol for psyche
Safe- Freudian influence of repression
Symbols Still Recurring
1934 Dali was expelled by surrealist members, for “[have] repeatedly been guilty of counter-revolutionary activity involving the celebration of fascism under Hitler” OR possible he just didn’t get along with Andre Brenton (the leader)
Dali’s eccentricities continue, when he gave the “Fantomes paranoiaques authentiques” speech in a London surrealist exhibit
Dali moved to the U.S. to evade the war in 1940
Dali always interested in physics and alchemy found the perfect niche to rectify his religiosity
Dali called this period “Nuclear Mysticism”
This period lasted about 15 years, in which he was concerned with scientific, historical and religious themes of chastity
Philosophical and Artistic Shift
A philosophical interpretation of quantum mechanics, to explain consciousness
A subjective approach linking your consciousness to your own reality
Adherents of Nuclear/Quantum mysticism believe “There is no observer separate from reality and no reality separate from the observer”
Making sense of confusion
A surrealist filmmaker.
In 1927, a year after Dali's expulsion, Buñuel approached him with an idea for a film - Un Chien Andalou ('An Andalusian Dog'),
which obeyed one rule and one rule only - there must be no explanation for any ideas present within the film.If it can be explained rationally or psychologically then it has no place in the venture in
Buñuel's interest in surrealism doubtless inflamed Dali's curiosity and may have been what led him to explore the style for himself
One of the founders of the surrealist movement, along with Breton and Aragon. Dali's work drew their attention. The sexual representations in his work were not lost on them, and the lack of conventionality in his work led them to invite him to join the movement.
Eluard didn't just affect Dali's artistic career, though. When Eluard visited Dali he brought with him his wife - Gala.
Dali was a great believer in the theories of Freud, and especially took to heart his sexual representation
Wife and Muse
"She was destined to be my Gardiva the one who moves forward, my victory, my wife."
forever linked to Dali
(1898-1936), also known as Federico Garcia Lorca was a renowned Spanish poet.
member of a group of Spanish artist known as Generación del 27, which included Salvador Dalí. The group was comprised of other poets and artists of the decade that formed the new Spanish Surrealist avant-garde and tried to connect the ideas of Spanish pop and folk culture with surrealism.
The Generación considered themselves a liberal group that defied the conservative constraints of traditional Spanish culture.
In 1927, Dalí and García Lorca worked together to produce the drama “Mariana Pineda” about a famous Spanish folk figure who opposed Ferdinand VII and supported liberal causes throughout her life.
Philippe Halsman, Portrait of Salvador Dalí, 1954. Gelatin silver print. 13 5/8 x 10 3/4 in. (34.6 x 27.3 cm).
The Dalí family in 1910: from the upper left, aunt Maria Teresa, mother, father, Salvador Dalí, aunt Catherine (later became second wife of father), sister Ana Maria and grandmother Ana
Madrid and Paris
In 1922, after the death of his mother, he moved to Madrid, where be devoted more time to art. He experimented with cubism and Dada, two new strands in modern art.
In 1926, his rebellious attitude culminated, leading him to getting expelled from art school just before his exams. Dali had complained no one in his art school was sufficiently competent to judge him.
After leaving art school, he traveled to Paris, where he became friends with Pablo Picasso. Picasso was a great influence on the young Dali, and some of his early works were inspired by Picasso's style.
The Basket of Bread
Oil on canvas.
31.75 cm × 31.75 cm (12.5 in × 12.5 in)
The Persistence of Memory
Oil on canvas
9 1/2 x 13" (24.1 x 33 cm)
It depicts a fetus-like head lying on the ground, like a fish that was washed ashore and now decaying after a lost struggle gasping for air. There are four watches in this painting, three of which appear to be molten, as if made out of cheese. The only watch whose structure doesn't appear to be malformed - unlike other watches it is orange in color - is sitting on a desk-like object. The ants seem to have found a point of interest in the center of the orange watch.
Interpretation 1: The persistence of memory meaning theme: the drooping pocketwatches possibly suggest the irrelevance of time during sleep. In other words, when we are asleep, or not conscious, the time does not persist, but memories do.
Interpretation 2: Yet another interpretation of this painting may, through the use of symbolism, suggest Einstein's theory that time is relative and is not fixed.
In 1948 Dali and Gala returned to Europe, spending most of their time either in their residence in Lligat/Spain or in Paris/France or in New York. Dali developed a lively interest in science, religion and history. He integrated things into his art that he had picked up from popular science magazines.
Another source of inspiration were the great classical masters of painting like Raphael, Velasquez or the French painter Ingres. The artist commented his shift in style with the words: "To be a surrealist forever is like spending your life painting nothing but eyes and noses."
In 1958 the artist began his series of large sized history paintings. He painted one monumental painting every year during the summer months in Lligat. The most famous one, The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus
The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus
Oil on canvas
410 x 284 cm
Forced Retirement and Final Years.
In 1980 Dali was forced to retire due to palsy, a motor disorder, that caused a permanent trembling and weakness of his hands.
The fact that he could not follow his vocation and passion of painting and the news of Gala's death in 1982 left him with deep depressions.
Towards the end of his life, Dali lived in the tower of his own museum where he died on January 23, 1989 from heart failure. He was buried in the crypt of Teatro Museo in Figueres.
Swans Reflecting Elephants,
Oil on canvas
51 cm × 77 cm (20.08 in × 30.31 in)
As the title promises, the three graceful swans’ reflections in the shimmering turquoise lake become…elephants! Not only is their mirror images at least partly plausible, but it points up a favorite obsession of Dali: the ambivalence and paradox of unlikely pairings. In this case, the lightness of the delicate swan contrasted with the tonnage of the world’s heaviest land animal.
Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening
Oil on canvas
51 cm × 40.5 cm (20 in × 15.9 in)
In this “hand-painted dream photograph” — as Dalí generally called his paintings — we find a seascape of distant horizons and calm waters, perhaps Port Lligat, amidst which Gala is the subject of the scene. Next to the naked body of the sleeping woman, which levitates above a flat rock that floats above the sea, Dalí depicts two suspended droplets of water and a pomegranate, a Christian symbol of fertility and resurrection. Above the pomegranate flies a bee, an insect that traditionally symbolizes the Virgin
The Temptation of St. Anthony
Oil on canvas
89.7 x 119.5 cm
It marks the only time Dalí participated in a contest. In addition to containing all of the defining surrealistic characteristics typical of Dalí's paintings, the piece is significant to Dalí's body of work as it is the first to show his interest in the intermediates between heaven and earth.
Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus),
Oil on canvas.
194.3 cm × 123.8 cm (76.5 in × 48.7 in)
He has painted self-portraits on one of the knees of the crucified Christ, and the cubic cross floats above a giant chessboard. His wife, Gala, stands beside the cross, possibly standing for Mary Magdalene. Also, it depicts the Crucifixion of Jesus, though it deviates from traditional portrayals of the Crucifixion by depicting Christ on the polyhedron net of a hypercube and adding elements of Surrealism. It is one of his most well known paintings from the later period of his career.
Christ of Saint John of the Cross, 1951.
Oil on canvas
205 cm × 116 cm (80.7 in × 45.67 in)
Willy Rizzo, Portrait of Salvador Dali, 1955.
Gelatin silver print.
16 5/8 x 12 3/4 in.
"Biography Salvador Dali." - Biography Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.biographyonline.net/artists/salvador-dali.html>.
"Dali Biography." Salvador Dali Official Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.salvadordali.com/biography/>.
"Edutainment Salvador Dali - 1904-1989." Salvador Dali Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.artelino.com/articles/salvador_dali.asp>.
The Great Masturbator,
Oil on canvas.
110 x 150 cm
Surrealism is based on the world of dreams and the
subconscious, thereby linking it with Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis