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Historical Perspectives on Supervision

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by

Lisa Maslach

on 5 July 2016

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Transcript of Historical Perspectives on Supervision

The 1800's
Early 20th Century continued
Opposing Frederick Taylor was John Dewey. He believed in democracy in education; that children should learn to be good citizens. At this time, supervision in education saw a shift from one of facility management to one in teacher and curriculum improvement. School inspectors became Principals and Special Supervisors who aided in subject master and General Supervisors who helped in school administration and management.
Post World War II
Education continued to shift from the Scientific Management philosophy to a child and teacher centered program. "With that in mind, teachers were viewed not just as facilitators of educating student to be efficient employees, but also to be viewed as individuals who needed to be proficient in their subject matter and possess expertise in instructing pupils and teachers" (Sullivan & Glanz, xxx, p 25).
Post World War II School Supervision
Because of the shift to a teacher/child centered model, school supervisors were expected to develop better teachers by following a long list of duties such as developing curriculum and teaching personnel, supporting the emotional qaulity of the classroom, instructional materials, public relations, etc. (ASCD, 2011).
School supervision focused on supervision of the facility and to determine if students were attending school as required by law. Schools focused on helping students become efficient factory workers.
Historical Perspectives on Supervision
Early 20th Century
Frederick Taylor wrote the Principals of Scientific Management. His educational philosophy was based on social efficiency; that children could be taught in school to be better, more efficient workers. His principals were very popular among business owners.
The 1950's

In 1952, Matthew Whitehead explained in a "Teachers Look at Supervision" that administrators should pay more attention to the chief aim of education - effective Teaching" (ASCD, 2011).
With this, the beginning of an era in classroom observation began
The 1960's
The practice of Clinical Supervision was explained by Robert Goldhammer as a face-to-face relationship between the supervisor and the teacher that is built on mutual trust
Goldhammer's 5 Phases of Supervision
1. Preobservation conference
2. Classroom observation
3. Analysis
4. Supervision conference
5. Analysis of the analysis
1980's and Madeline Hunter
Madeline Hunter is responsible for the seven step model of a lesson upon which school supervisors would base the foundation of their evaluation of teacher effectiveness. These seven components include: the anticipatory set, objective and purpose, input, modeling, checking for understanding, guided practice and independent practice.
The 21st Century
The 21st century leads us to our present state of the supervisor in a school. "Supervisors" are now known as "Instructional Leaders." This change is the result of the work done by Carl Glickman.
Glickman's Role of the Instructional Leader

According to Glickman, the instructional leader will:
1. Directly assist teachers
2. Provide group development
3. Provide Professional development
4. Provide Curriculum development
5. Do Action Research

This model of supervision is the developmental or reflective model.
Recent Years
Education is once again shifting. The focus of supervision is moving away from teacher behavior and focusing more on student achievement. Teachers are being evaluated for their effectiveness based on student achievement.
Personal Experience
In my experience as a teacher, I was educated and evaluated using the Madeline Hunter seven step model of a lesson. This model known as Mastery Teaching was what I based all of my lessons on for many years. However, I spent a number of years away from education and when I returned, I returned in the role of a school counselor. In this role, I have not had a formal observation in over 10 years. I have taken it upon myself to learn what the teachers in my school are expected to do. Most recently, they were educated in Marzano's Instructional Strategies, yet, for myself. I have yet to apply this knowledge in my current position in education. As an administrator, I will have much to learn.
Conclusion
The purpose of this presentation has been to walk one through the years of educational supervision. Over the last century, education has changed dramatically from a social efficiency model of developing efficient employees to a teacher centered model then to a child centered model. The focus of supervision has gone from managing people, to creating stronger teachers to teaching young people to become contributing members of our communities.
References
ASCD. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/ books/11019/chapters/A-Brief-History-of-Supervision-and-Evaluation.aspx
Sullivan, S., & Glanz, J. (2013). Supervision That Improves Teaching and Learning: Strategies and Techniques (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
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