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The History of Atomic Theory

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Brady Jones

on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of The History of Atomic Theory

An Argument in the Ancient World
Greek Philosopher Democritus proposed that there was a limit to how many times a piece of matter could be divided
He called the smallest piece of matter "atomos" meaning not to be cut.
He was dismissed due to lack of evidence.
Other philosophers views of 4 elements became favored.
~440 BC
Democitus
John Dalton
Known as one of the fathers of chemistry
Developed the first rules of atomic theory (page 104 of textbook)
All matter is made of extremely small particles called atoms.
Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
All atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and properties.
Atoms of a specific element are different than those of another element.
Different atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds
In a chemical reaction, atoms are separated, combined or rearranged.
Two of these rules have since been proven incorrect, can you guess which ones?
1808
John Dalton
It took over 2000 years for these philosophers' error to be corrected...
Sir J.J Thompson
Used a cathode ray (crooks) tube
Discovered the existence of electrons.
Determined the ratio of mass to charge for an electron
Determined that the mass of the electron was much less than the mass of the hydrogen atoms.
Electrons were subatomic particles.
1897
Sir J.J. Thompson
So J.J Thompson showed that atoms contain electrons. This led to the "plum pudding" model of the atom
The Plum Pudding Model states that the electrons were lumpy, negatively charged "plums" contained within a positively charged pudding.
1909
Sir. Earnest Rutherford
Robert Millikan
Sir Earnest Rutherford
"Gold Foil" Experiment, shot positively charged, radioactive alpha particles at thin sheet of gold foil.
Proved the existence of a positively charged, small, dense nucleus.
Robert Millikan
"Oil Drop" Experiment
Used charged drops of oil
Discovered the charge and mass of the electron
The History of Atomic Theory
Neils Bohr
Observed light emitted from excited hydrogen atoms
Proposed that electrons "orbit" the nucleus in definite orbitals
1913
Neils Bohr
Lewis deBroglie
Confirmed that matter acts like particles and waves
Sir James Chadwick
Used masses of elements and Rutherford's data to predict the presence of a neutral particle in the nucleus
Discovered the existence of Neutrons.
1927
Louis deBroglie
1932
Sir James Chadwick
Erwin Schrodinger
Brought Bohr's theory of the electron together with deBroglie's wave/particle duality.
Wrote very complex equations to describe the electron around the nucleus as a "wavefunction."
Erwin
Schrodinger
Full transcript