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Slavery in Colonial Jamaica 2015

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Julie Jenkins

on 1 February 2018

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Transcript of Slavery in Colonial Jamaica 2015

Slavery in Colonial Jamaica
Work all night on a drink of rum
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)
Stack banana till the mornin' come
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)

Come, Mister Tally Man, tally me banana
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)
Come, Mister Tally Man, tally me banana
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)

--1494, Christopher Columbus
--Diego Columbus 1509
--establish Spanish colony (Santiago)
Looking for gold & silver
--used indigenous population, Arawak Indians, as labor
--population of 60,000 died b/c of disease & working conditions
British- 1655
--settlers given land to cultivate sugar and cocoa
--autonomy from government-- via own Legislative Assembly
--relied on import of Africans to be used as slaves for labor
1655-1808-- 1 million Africans brought to Jamaica
--Slavery ended in 1834
--former slaves served as 'apprentices' for 4-6 years
--full emancipation in 1838
-some former slaves stayed working for plantation owners

--race understood as meaning that some people "were incapable of possessing mental and moral qualities necessary in his rise in the scale of true civilization"
--Social Darwinism

late 19th century- early 20th century
---sugar cultivation decreases
--American corporation starts banana production and export
--lands sold to corporation, people had to turn to wage labor in banana production/export
--emergent middle-class through clerical posts
--brought over 1st group of African slaves in 1517
-others settled elsewhere
--Baptist Church bought and subdivided property
--"free villages"
-19,000
-plantation owners imported Chinese and Indian indentured servants
--others squatted on marginal or gov. lands
-subsistence farming & local trade
--marginalization of former slaves from accumulation of land, wealth, education
--political power determined by land ownership and literacy
-expansion of British colonial control
--"Right & duty" to guide formers slaves towards civilization
"whiten" black peasantry
--via middle class British values & "respectability"
discipline
temperance
work
thrift
industry
self-help
Christian living
family structure:
--marriage
--male leadership
respect for leadership of educated middle-class
--Marcus Garvey (born 1887)
--recognized RACISM as factor in black social and economic success
--vs blacks incapable of economic success b/c of biological differences

Racism:
--not just 'beliefs"
--institutional
--distribution of power, access to wealth
Old pirates, yes, they rob I;
Sold I to the merchant ships,
Minutes after they took I
From the bottomless pit.
But my hand was made strong
By the 'and of the Almighty.
We forward in this generation
Triumphantly.
Won't you help to sing
These songs of freedom? -
'Cause all I ever have:
Redemption songs;
Redemption songs.

Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery;
None but ourselves can free our minds.
Have no fear for atomic energy,
'Cause none of them can stop the time.
How long shall they kill our prophets,
While we stand aside and look? Ooh!
Some say it's just a part of it:
We've got to fulfil de book.
"History is lived in the present" (Stolzoff)
"A 'culture' need not be homogeneous or even particularly coherent. Instead of assuming far-reaching cultural sharing, a 'replication of uniformity,' we should take a distributive view of cultures as systems of meaning.. [look at culture] in more processual terms. There is a 'management' of meaning' by which culture is generated and maintained, transmitted and received, applied, exhibited remembered, scrutinized, and experimented with" (Hannerz 1999).
"abandon binaries of hegemony & resistance and understand the range of contemporary cultural formations among black Jamaicans vis a vie ongoing negotiation of dynamic systems of power and domination at historically specific junctures" (Thomas 2009).
Burning Spear- Christopher Columbus
I and I old I know
I and I old I say
I and I reconsider
I and I see upfully that
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Yes Jah

He is saying that
He's the first one
Who discovered Jamaica
I and I say that,
"What about the Arawak Indians..
and the few black man who were round here before him?"

The Indians couldn't hang on no longer
Here comes black man and woman and children
Inna Jamdown lan' ya
Whole heap o' mix-up, mix-up
A whole heap o' ben' up, ben' up
It haffe straighten out

Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Yes Jah
Price argues that Blackness is a culturally ascribed category- Why? What does that mean?
"culturally constructed label (classification) that crudely and imprecisely describes real (human) variation" (Relethford).
What experiences did those ascribed with a slave status have? Why and how was music, dance, and religion important in this context?
myalism
obeah
Native Baptist
"British imperialism was not merely a system of economic exploitation and political domination, but also one of cultural control that attempted to socialize colonial populations into accepting the moral and cultural superiority of Englishness" (Thomas 2009)
--African/Black symbolized negatively, whiteness symbolized positively
1 rebellion every 5 years throughout the 18th century.

--Tacky Rebellion- 1760-
--Baptist War/Myalist War (Sam Sharpe) - 1831
Baptist missionary:
"I am pained, painted to the soul at being told that many of have agreed not to work any more for your owners, and I fear this is too true. I learned that some wicked person has persuaded you that the King of Englad has made you free..Hear me! I love your souls and I would not tell you a lie for the whole world; I assure you that it is false, false as hell can make it. I entreat you not to believe it, but go to your work as formerly. If you have any love for Jesus Christ, to religion, to your ministers or to those kind friends in Englad who have helped you to build this chapel, and who are sending a minister for you, do not be led away. God commands you to be obedient"
Sharpe responds:
"we have worked enough already, and will work no more; the life we live is too bad; it is the life of a dog, we wont' be slaves no more, and won't lift hoe no more, we won't take flogging no more"

Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?

Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

And how they beat us.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
And how they worked us so hard.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
And how they used us.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Till they refuse us.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

Mm.. And a big fat bull.
Mm.. We usually pull it ev'rywhere.
Mm.. We must pull it.
Mm.. With shackles around our necks.
Mm.. And I can see it all no more.
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

My brother feels it.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Including my sisters too.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Some of us survive. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Showing them that we are still a live.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
History can recall, history can recall.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
History can recall the days of slav'ry.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

Oh slav'ry day (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Oh slav'ry day (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

Cry and remember, please rembember.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Slavery Days- Burning Spear
There's a place called Africa, far, far away, woo-woo
There's a place called Africa, many miles away
Mama says that's where I'm from
And I know she can't be wrong
Take me back to Africa, Mama, how did I get here?
How did I stray? Woo-woo-woo

She said, once upon a time, my son
They stowed us on a ship
We had to work and slave each day
The boss, he took our pay
But a brighter sun has dawned today
They can't stop us, come what may
A time shall come for you and I
She bowed her head and cried, woo-woo
Mama, please don't cry


(..)

There's a place called Africa, far, far away, woo-woo
There's a place called Africa, many miles away
A brighter sun has dawned today
They can't stop us, come what may
A time shall come for you and I
She bowed her head and cried, woo-woo
Mama, please don't cry

There's a place called Africa, far, far away
There's a place called Africa, many miles away
Junior Byles- A Place Called Africa
Great Revival - Bedwardites - 1860
-overthrow white rule
-Ethiopia
-possession of Holy Spirit
-Healing ceremonies
Morant Bay Rebellion- 1865- Paul Bogle
-vision of black owned business
"wealth is strength, wealth is power, wealth is influence, wealth is justice, is liberty, is real human rights. The system of our world politics suggests such as a fact it is...it is the accumulated wealth of the Negro that will force him to the front and compel men and nations to think of him in terms of economic justice. All this is achievable through a greater economic expansion"
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