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AP Human Geography Review

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Chris Kapuscik

on 24 October 2018

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Transcript of AP Human Geography Review

AP Human Geography Ultimate Review

Unit: Political Organization of Space
Buffer State
An Independent Country located between two larger countries that are in conflict
Ex: Russia v China (Mongolia)

Buffer Zone (Multiple countries sit in the way)
Satellite States
Countries controlled by another more powerful state
Ex: Cold War (Soviets set up Poland as a satellite state)

Eastern Europe satellite states formed the "Iron Curtain" Between West & East
A state or group of states that exist within a sphere of competition between larger states and is often culturally, economically, and politically fractured (Countries caught in the middle of conflict)

Ex: Eastern Europe during WW2 and Cold War and Kashmir between Pakistan and India
United Nations Law of the Seas
Approved by the UN in 1982 that establishes ocean laws.
Main laws are a country's territorial waters are up to 12 nautical miles from shore and 200 nautical miles of economic zones (explore and mine resources)

Ex: Issue in the South China Sea as China claims territorial zones conflicting with neighboring countries (building islands)
Types of Boundary Disputes
Definitional - Fights over treaty
Ex: Russia and Japan (Islands surrounding Japan)

Locational - Agree on definition but not on the map (Rivers shift)

Operational - How should the boundary function
Ex: US Mexico Border (Immigration)

Allocational - Over resources (Rivers running through several countries)
A very small state (Singapore)
Unitary v Federal Government
Unitary - One main governmental decision for the geographic state (May be dictatorship)

Federal - Power is shared between central gov't and regional gov't (National and state level)
Ex: United States, Germany, Canada (provinces) (self determination)
Enclave v Exlave
Enclave - State surrounded by another state
Ex: Lesotho (IN South Africa)

Exclave - Land that is an extension of a another state (broken away)
Ex: Alaska

Control by one state over another place
1st period - when Columbus discovered land in the West (15th Centrury)
2nd period - Europeans carved up Africa (Berlin Conference -late 1800's)
Spread Christianity
Economic System in which a state acquires colonies that can provide it with raw materials to ship back home for production
Process of establishing political, social, and economic dominance over a colonized area

Ex: Europeans acculturated indigenous people and imposed their architecture and religion
Dependency Theory
Theory suggests many countries are low in development because of colonization and they still depend on the core countries by trade of raw material and use of cheap labor (South America, Asia, Africa are regions that haven't healed)

Ex: Division of labor in the world (Nike in Indonesia, UK Diamond Industries in South Africa, Shell Gas in Nigeria)
The continued economic dependence of new states on their former colonial masters
Heartland Theory
Era for sea power ending (control over land is the key)
Eurasia was the world island and the key to dominating the world
Ruling the world meant controlling Eastern Europe (linked to the Communist effort to dominate Eastern Europe and United States containment policy against USSR)
Domino Theory
Prevalent during the Cold War, If one country falls to communist then neighboring countries will fall resulting in Communist domination of the world. (Led to containment doctrine/ Vietnam)
Rimland Theory
Rimland ecompassed Eurasia's periphery not core (Russia and Central Asia)
Nicolas Spkyman thought it was key to balance power in the rimland to prevent a global power from emerging
Linked to Vietnam and Korean Wars, Communist v non Communist (Democracy)
Gerrymandering and the Census
Happens when politicians redraw electoral boundaries to give a political party an advantage when voting for seats in congress
It's Illegal!!!
In the US, Republicans and Demoats battle for power and happens every ten years when the census comes out (survey of the population)
Centrifugal v Centripetal
Centrifugal - Divide (F for Fighting)
Ex: British India -> Pakistan and India (Muslims v Hindus)
Separatism, religious divisions

Centripetal - Unify (P for peace)
Ex:Unifying symbols
pledge of allegience

Unit - Migration
Chain Migration
Occurs when people migrate to be with other people who migrated before them (connection
Voluntary v Involuntary migration
Option to move or not vs. forced away from their land
Ex: Largest forced migration (Triangle trade; 30 million Africans)
Major regions of Dislocation and Refugees
Sub-Saharan Africa
Rwanda (Hutus v Tutsi's
Sudan (Northern Muslims v Southern Animists and Christians over land)
Middle East (Southwest Asia)
Israeli - Palestine Conflict (Arabs migrated to Jordan, Syria, etc)
United Nations create Israel for Jews after WW2. 2 state system between Israel and Palestine breaks down and tensions rise
Fall of Yugoslavia in the Balkans (7 million refugees fled)
Serbs act out genocide against Bosnian Muslims
Balkanization - Region breaks up into several states (notice the new countries formed)
Southeast Asia
Vietnam War (2 million refugees) - USA loses vs Vietnam (Domino/Communism reigns)

Cambodian Genocide -Pol Pot's Cambodia kills 25% of the country. Turns it into agrarian society (Kills educated people)

Waves of Immigration to the U.S.
3 major waves & 1 modern

1) Colonial era (1600's-1776 from Europe and Africa to New world)

2) 19th century - 1840 and 1850's (Irish and Germans; opportunity and Irish potato famine)

3) Early 20th century - fueled by Industrial Revolution (1900's -Russia and Northern and Western Europe)

* Quota Act of 1921 - Halted unrestricted immigration

4) 1980's-1990's (Latin America)
Guest Workers and Remittances
Guest Workers - temporarily permits allowed in U.S.A. (or other countries) on work permits
Not for citizenship, but just economic purposes
Largest to the USA is Mexicos

Remittances - Money sent home by guest workers to families (significant source of income for some countries (Guatemala and Mexico is an example) - Currency exchange is huge
Shift of US Population Center
Today it's shifted consistently westward in a southward direction (Towards Sunbelt)
Great Migration - African Americans moved north to industrial jobs (Early 1900's)
1970's African Americans returned South (US factories closed
Rustbelt in the Northeast -> Sunbelt
Migration Selectivity
Most likely between ages of 18 and 30 (leave parents, college, war)
More educated the farther the migration (greater job qualifications) ; Brain Drain in countries
Ravenstein's Law of Migration 1800's (***Model/Theory***)
11 generalizations (most important below to know)

Majority of migrants travel short distances (most do step migration; long distance in mind done in small steps)
Migrants traveling long ways tend to move to larger cities rather than small
Rural residents are more likely to migrate than urban residents
Families are less likely to migrate across national border than young adults (easier for single people to move)
Every migration stream creates a counterstream

* Developed during 1800's research using England (Industrial Revolution)
The Gravity Model
Predicts that larger places attract more migrants than smaller places and closer places attract more migrants than more distant places
Ex: Mexicans to US rather than England (distance)

Or anything dealing with distance... Further the distance the more expensive the cost
Zelinsky's Model of Migration Transition
Uses country's stage in the demographic transition model to predict migration changes
Stage 1 countries are moving on a temporary basis in search for food and shelter (nomadic)
Stage 2 countries experience high rates of natural increase which causes overuse of resource and limited opportunity (migrate to MDC's)
Stage 4 countries (intraregional - people moving from cities to suburbs and back)
Cyclic Movements
occurs during your daily routine from home and back (home to work)
Seasonal Movement
Leaving home for short time then back (migrant workers)
Periodic Movement
Longer periods of stay (military/college attendance)
Branches, Denominations, Sects
Branches - Large fundamental divisions

Denominations - Groups within branches

Sects - Groups who broken away from denominations

Unit: Religions
Hearth (India) - Spread to China and Southeast Asia along the silk road

Theravada - monastic (Monks and nun; 55% practiced)
Mahayana - not monks (meditation and prayer; 40% practiced)
Lamaism - Tibet (Mix of Monks, demons and deities) leader - Dalai Lama

Develops out of Judaism
Jesus the messiah
Hearth: Modern day Israel
Diffusion through expansion and relocation
Currently has the largest following (2 million)
Spread accelerated during common era (312; Roman Empire adopts as official religion)
European colonization spreads (15th century)
Land use: Burial of the dead; Hindus, Buddhists, Shintos cremate their dead

Roman Catholic - Largest branch (hierarchical - pope is leader; Vatican City)
Eastern Orthodox - 1054 C.E. (Dominant in Eastern Europe and Russia)
Protestant - 25% (Came about in 15th century reformation; Wanted to worship god as they please; split from Roman Catholic)
Denominations: Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran
Muhammad last prophet (Brought Islam to Medina, Saudi Arabia)
1.2 million (2nd largest; but fastest growing religion)
Crusades: 11th and 12th century (Christians fought to take back lands from Muslims)
Holy book is Koran

Sunni - 85% of Muslims (Pakistan; Indonesia; Can convert)
Shiite: - 15% (Strict; Must be born into)

Small & Universalizing
Late 15th century by Guru Nanak (prophet)
Diffused from Pakistan to India
Global diaspora (scattered globally; US, UK, Canada)
Mainly in Punjab region India
Ethnic Religion (Indian origin primarily)
Diffused through Ganges river, and only India
Holy scriptures: The vedas
Beliefs: Reincarnation, Caste System (Social Hierarchy you're born into; outlawed today)
Mahatma Ghandhi - Helped India gain independence from Britain
Hindus believe temple builders gain devine reward (many temples :D )
Cremate the dead

Oldest monotheistic religion
Hearth is palestine (Jeruselum is headquarters)
Prophet Abraham
Jewish diaspora (Scattered after Roman Empire destroyed Jeruselum
Primarily live in Israel (1948 declared Jewish official homeland by the United Nations, triggers war against Arab Palestinians)
Jeruselum (Tension: Holy sites for Christians, Jews, and Muslims)

The torah (Old testament; 10 commandments)
Ethnic religion (Combination of Buddhism and Japan traditions)

Taoism (Daoism) & Confucianism
Taoism - People live in harmony with nature and with their lives (Feng Shui, organizing living spaces in harmonious ways)
Confucianism - System of morals and way of life in Chinese government, religion, education.
Shamanism & Animism
Shamanism - ethnic religious leader (healer or truth knower)
Animism - Shaman taught (objects have divine spirits in them)
Landscape is spiritual (Native Americans)
movement away from religion controlling life
may reject religion
Government run by religion
Afghanistan and the Taliban (fundamentalist Muslim)
Currently Iran
Religious Conflict
Hindus v Muslims (India & Pakistan)
Partition of India after WW2 by British (1947)
Wanted to avoid possible civil war, Pakistan created for Muslims and India for Hindus
1 million die from partition
Northern Ireland (Protestant v Roman Catholics)
British colonialism placed protestants in roman catholic territory (violence erupts)
Yugoslavia ( Eastern Orthodox Christians v Muslims)
Slobadan Milosevic tried to kill & evict Muslims in Bosnia for Serbian control
Unit: Agriculture and Rural Land Use
Subsistence v Commercial
For self/family v for sale around the world
Vegetative Planting v Seed Agriculture
Cutting off a stem of another plant (root plants; yam bananas) v planting of seeds (wheat/rice)

First Agriculture Revolution (Neolithic Revolution)
People figure out how to farm 10,000-12,000 yrs
Development of seed agriculture and animal power use
Humans became sedentary (agrarian societies)

Seed Hearths and Diffusion
Western India -> SW Asia (Wheat/barley)
SW Asia (Fertile Crescent) -> Europe/N. Africa (Sheep, Cattle, Goats)
Northern China -> S. Asia and SE Asia (Millet)
Southern Mexico -> Whole Western Hemisphere (Squash/Corn)
Northern Peru -> Whole Western Hemi (Cotton/Beans)
2nd Agriculture Revolution (w/ Industrial Rev.)

Use of machinery in agriculture
Caused massive urban migration
increased crop and livestock yields
Encouraged the population boom
Types of Subsistence Farming
Shifting Cultivation
Farmers rotate crops to replenish the soil
Crop rotation (different) - Change crop type to keep soil healthy
Found in tropical zones (African Rainforests, Amazon River Basin, South America)
Slash and Burn Agriculture (Used to shift)
Clear the land (slashing) -> Burning the land (swidden) (Ex: of Extensive subsistence agriculture)
Interrilage - Mixing different seeds to plant by hand on the same crop fields
Causes deforestation, loss of soil nutrients
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
When farmer cultivates a small plot of land very efficiently for the family (China, India, SE Asia)
Primarily Rice grown w/ this style (China, India, SE Asia)
Terrace farming - Farming on hills (Extensive form of agriculture)
Double Cropping - Planting and harvesting crop on a field more than once a year (Growing corn and wheat in one season on one plot)
Breeding and herding of animals (done by nomads/mongolia)
Practiced in arid/semi-arid climates (deserts and steppes)
N. Africa, Central Africa, Middle East, Central Asia)
Transhumanance - Movement of animals seasonally
Mediterranean Farming
Near Mediterranean Sea (hot dry summers, mild wet winters)
California, South Australia, S. Europe
Vine crops, wheat (Olives, grapes, figs)
Commercial Agriculture types
Mixed crop & Livestock
Farm that grows crops & raises livestock
Mainly grown to feed the animals
Widely throughout Europe and Eastern N. America (MDC)

Known as Commercial grazing
Mainly cattle and sheep (beef and wool)
Western US, Argentina, S. Brazil
being converted into feed lots

Mainly close to market place (urban areas)
Most economically productive commercial farming
Refrigerated trucks allow farms to be further away
Large Scale Grain Production
US is largest grain producer
Wheat is the largest exporting crop (rice is most consumed)

Plantation Farming
Specialized farming of one or two cash crops
Coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, pineapples
Done in LDC, but owned by MDC companies
Von Thunen's Agriculture Location Theory
1800's, where and why agriculture practices are located where they are
Assumes there's one marketplace where products are sold
Assumes one type of transportation method, all soil is productive
Land closest to the city is more expensive than further away
Grain farmer needs more farm land so needs cheaper land
dairy farms closer because of possible spoiling
Ranching needs the most land so the cheapest is wanted
Relates to distance
3rd Agricultural Revolution
Began in 19th century North America
Distribution of mechanized farming technology and fertilizers globally (MDC -> LDC)
Harvesting -> Transported to Processing Site (Like industries today)

Combination of food production industries (farms, processing plants, packaging, fertilizer laboratories, distributors)
Modern system of food production (on a global level)
Led to the decline of family farms
Corporate owned
The Green Revolution
Began in the 1940's, phase of 3rd agri rev.
Hybrid seeds and fertilizers were invented (dramatically increased output)
Increased protection from pests, produced food more rapidly
Spread to LDC to reduce world hunger

reduced labor on farms (job loss)
pests develop resistance
Can't be used in dryer regions such as Africa
Local farmers can't afford green rev. products & technology
Chemicals harmful to farmers and workers
Requires more water (strained resource)
Soil Erosion
Population pressures cause foods needing to be grown at faster rates (Crop rotation not used, slash and burn used)
Loss of nutrient rice top soil

Desertification - Expansion of the desert (Sahel Region)
Human and natural cause - Pastoralism cause
Unit: Industrialization
Major Economic Classifications
Primary sector - getting raw materials from the earth (farming/fishing)
Small part of MDC

Secondary Sector - Processing raw materials (Corn -> Baby Food)
Factories and Manufacturing

Tertiary Sector - Move, Sell, and Trade primary & secondary products and provide services
financial services, bank tellers, fast food workers

Quaternary sector - information creation and transfer
University researches, investment analysts

Quinary sector - Highest level of decision making
Government (legislative making); NAFTA (Trading decisions)
Beginning of Industrial Revolution (Industrialization)
Industrial Revolution began in England 17th century (textile focused)
Machines replaced human labor (rural -> urban)
Coal became the leading energy source (early factories clumped near coal fields)
Transportation infrastructure improved & agriculture production
Cottage industries (home based) -> Factory systems
Diffusion of Industrial Revolution
Spread to North America and Western Europe by 1825
Thrived in rich coal regions (Ukraine in Russia, Ruhr region in Germany)

Henry Ford adopted assembly production - people performed different tasks
Alfred Weber's Least Cost Theory of Industrial Location

Predicts where industries would located based on the places that would be least cost to them
Want to located where transportation costs are the least
Need to consider: Distance of transportation to market & weight of the goods
Heavier the good and farther the distance, the more expensive it is to ship
Weber assumed market places are fixed locations (don't change)
Criticisms: Markets and labor are mobile and not fixed & labor force type varies (skill, age, etc)

Paper (near forests)
Steel (Iron/Coal)
Bottled Beverages
Textiles (Cotton)

Footloose Industries
not restricted in where they can locate because of transportation costs
cost remains the same no matter where they locate
Often produce lightweight products of high value like computer chips or diamonds
Products are so small it doesn't matter
Labor costs and Substitution Principle
Substitution Principle - Substitute one factor of production to maximize profit
Ex: when industries will move from place to place to access lower labor costs (labor over transportation)
Agglomeration Examples
Agglomeration - The clustering of businesses for mutual benefit

Silicon Valley, CA - Technology and Computer industries agglomerate near San Jose

Research Triangle - In North Carolina, research area forwarded by Duke and NC State University
Backwash effect
negative consequences of agglomeration and occurs when other areas suffer out migration (brain drain) when people move to agglomerated areas
EX: Sunbelt migration caused backwash effect to occur in the rust belt region of the US
Locational Interdependence
Theory that industries choose their locations based on where their competitors are located
Ex: Gas stations in the U.S.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) v Gross National Product (GNP)
GDP - value of total outputs of goods and services products in a country over a year

GNI - Includes all goods and services owned and produced by a country including oversea businesses. (Argentine coca cola factory)
Informal Sector
Includes all business transactions that were not reported to the government (unregistered workers)

HDI (United Nations Human Development Index)
Measures a country's development level
Things measures:
Gross Domestic Product
Life Expectancy
Educational Level
Literacy Rates
Score between 1.000 - 0.000
North-South Gap (Brandt Line)
Core-Periphery Model
World's countries are divided into three groups
Core: Industrialized countries with highest per capita and standard of living
USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, Western Europe
Semi-Periphery: Newly industrialized countries that haven't caught up to core countries
Brazil, India, China, South Africa
Periphery: LDC's with low levers of industrialization and standard of living
Most African countries, parts of Asia and South America
Wallerstein's World Systems Analysis
World is a capitalistic system of interlocking states connected through economic and political competition
Linked to core-periphery model: Unequal positions of countries came from early exploration and colonization
Inequalities that resulted from domination and exploitation by core countries of the semi-peripheral and preipheral
Rostow's Modernization Model
Rostow predicts countries patterns of economic development
Five stages which all countries move as they improve their economic development
MDC's are in stage 4 and 5; LDCs are in stage 1 & 3

Self Sufficiency Approach
Self Sufficiency Approach - pushes underveleoped countries to provide for their own people, independent of foreign economies
Rural areas must develop along with urban areas
Favors a closed economic state in which imports are limited and heavily taxed so that local businesses can grow.
Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
Businesses with headquarters in one country and production facilities in one or more other countries (Also known as transnational corporations TNC)
Agents of globalization
Practice of an MNC to relocate its manufacturing operations to factories in other countries (Shoe company HQ in USA and outsources its shoe production to workers in Malaysia)
Asian Tigers and New Asian Tigers (Tiger Cubs)
Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore
Skill workers produce high tech products
Foreign Direct Investment & Special Economic Zones
Investment by a MNC in a foreign country's economy
Special Economic Zone (SEZ) - Regions that offer special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions and other incentives to attract foreign business and investment.
Mexico's SEZ's is on its northern border
MNCs take advantage of labor costs
Maquila products are shipped to the US tariff free (tax break)

Unit: Cities and Urban Land Use
Growth and diffusion of city
MDCs = highly urbanized ; LDC = Experiencing explosive urbanization
Ex: Urbanization is occurring at a rapid rate in LDC countries
Metropolitan Statistical Area
A central city and all its interacting counties (minimum of 50,000 people)
Overlapping metropolitan areas or multiple metropolitan areas connected together (Washington D.C. and Boston)
Urban Hearths
Earliest cities came from agricultural villages
Earliest hearths:
Mesopotamia (Tigris and Euphrates River)
Indus River (Pakistan)
Nile Valley (Egypt)
Huang He River Valley (China)
Mexico and Peru
Pre-Industrial Cities
Those that developed prior to industrialization
Settlements around agricultural products
Served as trade centers and gateways to foreign lands
Pre-Industrial Colonial Cities
Colonial cities were built by colonizers in conquered lands
European imperialism and drive for land and fesources fueled the creation of cities
Colonial cities aim was exporting raw resources from colonial city back to the mother country
Industrial Revolution (Urban & European)
1800 - 5 % of world lived in cities
1950 - 16 % of world lived in cities
2010 - 50 % of world lives in cities
Why? Diffusion of industrialization (75% in MDC/40% in LDC)
All triggered by European Industrial Revolution
Started in England then diffused. (England 24% Urban in 1800 -> 99% by 1999)
2nd Agricultural Revolution
Spurred by Industrial Revolution (Machines now used for farming)
Farms became bigger, but less farmers needed
Caused more workers to move to cities rather than maintain their rural farming jobs
Caused urban migration (more workers for factories and improved food supply for pop. growth)
Shock Cities
Are urban places experiencing infrastructural challenges related to massive and rapid urbanization
Challenges: Slums, hazardous pollution, fires, urban prostitution, and exploitation of children
Ex: Chicago 30,000 in 1750 -> 500,000 by 1830 -> 1.5 million by 1900 -> 2.5 million by 2010
Strained Infrastructure and Squatter Settlements
Currently, highest rates of urbanization are happening in LDCs
Urbanization is focused on one or two major cities (primates) rather than being spread evenly throughout the country (Strains infrastructure and resources)
Many migrants build squatter settlements (barriadas; favelas) - makeshift housing on random land
Remember cities are interdependent not independent and interact with eachother
Central Place Theory (Walter Christaller)
1930's - developed as a means of studying the patters of urban land use
similar to von Thunen's model (rural), Christaller assumes land is flat, equal transportation methods, rural pop. is evenly distributed
Central places are urban centers that provide services to their surrounding rural people (central places hinterland)

Main Ideas
Threshold - the minimum number of people needed to fuel an aspect of the central place (ex: Doughnut shop has smaller threshold than a hospital )
Range of a good or service - maximum distance a person is willing to travel to obtain a good or service
Spatial competition - central place compete for customers
Christaller's model shows why economic functions drive the locational patterns of cities

The Hexagon Spatial Pattern
Von Thunen used rings; Christaller uses hexagon
Higher order central places have larger ranges and thresholds and vice versa with lower order central places
Urban Hierarchy
System of cities consisting of various levels (Central place theory predicts this will happen)
Cities can be of higher level, providing higher ranges and higher thresholds to lower levels.
New York City is the highest (Functions = Broadway, Wall Street)
Smaller cities (Functions; gas stations, fast food restaurants)

Real Time (Sunbelt States)
Last 30 years migration to the South and West increased cities urban hierarchy (Phoenix, Atlanta, Dallas) - Needed more central place functions for growing population
Rustbelt region fell in hierarchy
Rank Size Rule & Primate City
Rank Size rule - states that the nth largest city's population size in a region is 1/n the size of the regions largest city's population
Ex: 4th largest city is predicted to be 1/4 the size of the region's largest city, 5th largest is 1/5 and so on

Primate cities - disproportionately large cities which dominates the countries economic, political, and cultural functions and has no real competition with other cities in the region.
Ex to know: Buenos Aires (10x larger than 2nd city), London, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City
World Cities (Global Cities)
Powerful cities that control high level of the world's economic, political, and cultural activities.
Ex: Amsterdam is a global financial center
Ex: Milan exerts powerful influences over fashion and design
New York, London, Tokyo
1600: London, Lisbon, Amsterdam
1700's - Rome and Paris
1800s - Berlin, Chicago, New York
Make global financial decisions, flows of information, location of multinational or transnational corporations
Having at least over 10 million people
Beijing, Cairo, Mexico City
Borchert's Model of Urban Evolution
Borchert studied cities in the United States and linked historical changes to urban evolution.
4 stages based on transportation technology
Stage 1: Sail-wagon era: 1790-1830
Stage 2: Iron-Horse cities: 1830-1870; Railroad and steamboats rapidly spreading
Stage 3: Steel-rail epoch: 1870-1920; Industrial cities blossom because of steel industry (great lakes region)
Stage 4: Car-Air travel: 1920; spread of suburbs and Southern cities

CBD just means downtown/core - Easy
Concentric Zone Model
1920s by E. Burgess, was the first model to explain and predict urban growth (based on Chicago's growth)
Suggests: City's land use is seen as concentric rings and as the city grows and expands new rings are added and older rings change their function
In migrates tend to move into the inner rings then pushes people farther out (causes zone in transition ring, doesn't develop because investors know it will always be shifting)
Highest real estate prices are located in the CBD and vice versa

Bid rent curve: Predicts that land prices and pop. density decline as distance from the CBD increases
* Because transportation costs increase as you move away from the CBD, rents usually decrease
Sector Land Use Model
1930's Homer Hoyt observed that urban land use were based on zones of growth located on transportation routes like roads, canals, railroads
Socioeconomic groups clumped in sectors and radiate outwards in linear factors (transportation routes)
Factories and Industries follow rail lines
Lower housing follow public transportation
Middle located major highways
Multiple Nuclei Model
Late 1940's Haris and Ullman develops a new model of urban growth (most like cities today)
Suggests that growth occurred independently around several major focal points (not just CBD)
Airports, Universities, Ports
Land use zones often pop up in chunks
Shopping centers, industrial parks, housing zones could be built all at once
Mutiple focal points (not just CBD) can grow around key nodes of industry
The Urban Realms Model
Devleoped in 1960 as the car became more used
Used to explain that suburban regions were functionally tied to mixed use, suburban downtown that are independent from the CBD
Model grew out of the multiple nuclei model
Recognizes that many peoples daily lives occur around a fixed space or suburban downtown (places w/ businesses, eateries, medical care)
Latin American Cities
Ford-Griffen model
Things to Know:
CBD is more important in Latin American cities because suburbanization is not nearly as strong in Latin America
Wealth typically decreases as one moves outward from the CBD (opposite from concentric and sector model)
Squatter settlements are on the outside rings
Perefericos grow because of rural to urban migrants
Zone of in situ accretion - transitioning towards maturity and development and is mix of middle and lower income families
Zone of maturity - services and infrastructural development
Know about the commercial spine from the CBD
The increase in rural populations that result from out migration of city residents from their city and suburban homes

Urban Sprawl
The diffusion of urban land use and lifestyle into formerly non urban areas (growth of a city)
Led to the growth of edge cities (develops along highway exits, own schools, neighborhoods, restaurants, CBD, medical)
Refers to the growth of areas of concentrated poverty
originally comprised of mainly immigrants
Contributions to growth of urban ghettos
Blockbusting - when real estate agents and developers used racism to bust up a block by bringing in minorities to white neighborhoods then profiting from all the white flight
Racial Steering - real estate agents steer people to buy a home in a neighborhood based on their race (racial segregation housing patterns)
Redlining - When banks refuse to give loans and investments in minority neighborhoods
Renovation of older urban zones
Brings money into inner urban areas and possibly increases taxes and pushes lower income families from their homes
Movement to bring together trends in healthy living, sustainable growth, and urban development (go green ;p )
Planned Communities - walkable paths, recreation facilities, security features

Basic v Non Basic Jobs
Basic - brings money into an urban place and gives the city its primary function
Ex: Automobule manufacturing, Steel manufacturing
Non - Basic = Jobs that shift money within the city, serve the primary function
Ex: Teachers, janitors, fire department, dry cleaners, you get it (maintain the city)
Cultural landscape (Pittsburgh Steelers)
Multiplier Effect
Addition of one more basic job tends to raise more non basic jobs
Unit: Population
The study of human populations
Used to study the spatial distribution of humans and their movements

Ecumene - The part of earth that is inhabited (75 % of humans live on only 5% of earths surface)

Largest concentration of people on earth is found in East Asia (1 in 4 humans)

Currently India's rate of natural increase is higher than China's (India will overtake China in future)
Population Density
Density is simply the number of people in a particular land area

Arithmetic density (Pop. Density) - total # of people / by the total land area

Physiological density - the # of people per unit of arable land (farm land) - How much farmland is available?
Ex: US is 340 people per square mile ; Japan's is 7,000 people per square mile then farmland in Japan is much more scarce

Agricultural Density - The # of farmers per unit of arable land
Ex: High agricultural density means more farmers on each piece of farmland
Ex: Low suggests the presence of larger farms or more technology used
Immigration and Emigration
People coming into a country and people leaving a country
Carrying Capacity, Overpopulation, Infrastructure
Carrying capacity = # of people the area can sustain
Infrastructure = support systems (roads, houses, police, education, basically everything)
Ex: Saudi Arabia created desalination factories to remove salt from the ocean water
Overpopulation - Population outgrows its carrying capacity
Ex: Japan imports food to increase i carrying capacity

Population Pyramids
The wider the base the higher % of young people (Pop will expand, like Sub-Saharan Africa)
Top heavy, higher % of older people (Pop is growing slowly or shrinking) Future strain on healthcare
Nondependent = 15 through 64 (workforce)
Dependent - Older or younger than workforce
Fertility and Mortality Measurements
Crude birth rate (CBR)= # of live births/1,000 people per year
Crude death rate (CDR) - # of deaths per 1,000 people per year
Rate of natural increase (RNI) - Growth rate of a population (w/o immigration and emigration)
Ex: LDC experience highest rates of RNI
Doubling time - amount of time needed for pop. to double in size (higher RNI the shorter the doubling time)
Infant Mortality rate (IMR) - # of infant deaths per 1,000 live births a year
Life Expectancy (LE)
Total fertility rate (TFR) - # of births a women will have in her conceiving years
Historical Trends in Population Change
10,000 - 12,000 years ago - 1st agricultural revolution (build up of first real settlements - > cities -> pop. growth)
1700's - Industrial Revolution & 2nd Agricultural Revolution (Urban populations began to boom and cities became overcrowded, diffused globally)

Thomas Mathus Thoery

Argued that population growing exponentially while food supply was only growing arithmetically (pop. was growing at a faster rate than food supply)
Advocated for "positive checks" on pop. control (Birth control and celibacy)
Warned of "negative checks" (starvation and disease)
Argued that overpopulation was in part due to immorality

Argue that Mathus failed to predict agricultural innovations that can increase food supply rate (green revolution)

Problem isn't pop. growth rates but unequal distribution of wages and resources

Population Policies
Pro-natalist v Anti-natalist - Expanisve v Restrictive
Ex: China's one child policy - Anti-natalist
Caused imbalance sex ratios
Epidemic v Pandemic
Pandemic = Disease such as HIV/AIDS, and affects very la numbers globally
Epidemic = Disease affecting at a more local region (Cholera)
Ex: 1.2 % of the world's adults are living with HIV/AIDS
Epicenter - Region at the center of impact (Sub Saharan Africa and AIDS)
Demographic Transition Model
Explains and predicts changes in population growth
Assumes all countries will pass through the four stages (economic driven)
Stage 1 (Low Growth) - all countries past through this stage (improved medicine)
Stage 2 (High Growth)
Stage 3: (Moderate Growth) - CBR falls; families decide to lower birth rates; rural -> urban migration; children live longer; RNI is decreasing (Latin American and Asian countries)
Stage 4: (Low growth)
Epidemiological Transition Model
Stage 1: Famine, drought, bubonic plague (Age of Pestilence and Famine)
Stage 2: Age of Receding Pandemics - Overcrowing and urbanization (Cholera)
Stage 3 & 4: Modern health care systems. Death related to longer life expectancies (heart attacks and cancers) - Age of Degenerative and Man Made Diseases and Delayed Degenerative Diseases
Unit: Cultural Patterns and Processes
Cultural Landscape and Carl Sauer
The cultural landscape is the physical imprint a culture makes on the environment. Buildings, artwork, and music are examples

Carl Sauer - championed the study of the cultural landscape (Humans put their fingerprint on Earth)

Cultural Ecology - study of human environment interaction and its results
Environmental Determinism & Possibilism
Environmental Determinism - Theory that argues that human behavior is determined by the physical environment.
(Ideal climates cause more productive citizens and vice versa)

Possibilism - Theory that argues that the natural environment places limits on the possibilities available to people.
People, not the environment propel human development
Cultural Determinism
Cultural Determinism - Argues that the environment places no restrictions on humans whatsoever.
Ex: Humans restrict themselves

Test Practice Review 2006 - 1-75

Remember to know why you got this wrong!!!

Asian Tigers
Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore
Skill workers produce high tech products
Group of Asian countries that developed
strong technology and Industry
which allowed them to become an
independent global power
(these are new industrial countries)

Not dependent on former colonial masters

Not Example: Indonesia attracts foreign direct investments (still dependent on former rulers:
Quinary Economic Sector
Involves decisions made at the highest level of government and economics.

Ex: Serving on the U.S. presidential cabinet (help make decisions for the country, ex: Secretary of war, Secretary of agriculture, etc.)

Ex: Trade organizations (NAFTA, EU, ASEAN, OPEC) & Military Organizations (NATO)
Site v.s. Situation
Physical character of a place
A place's location relative to other places
Ex: New Orleans - 8ft below sea level makes it prone to floods

Ex: Anchorage, Alaska - Located on fault lines, prone to earthquakes

Ex: El Paso, TX - Located in a semi-arid desert region
Ex: New Orleans - Base of the Mississippi allowed trade, transportation, and city growth

Situated on the coast for port access and trade

Ex: El Paso, TX - Located along the Rio Grande River, and a border city with Juarez, Mexico
Latin American & Western European Cities v United States Cities
Latin American and Western European Cities often have wealthy people live near the CBD or market centers

USA cities have the wealthier people live on the outside near suburbs or suburban centers.
Dependency Ratio
Measure of how many people are too old or too young to work compared to the amount of workers in a country
= Dependency Ratio
Government ran by religious law or religious leaders (Theo = God, Cracy = Rule)

Afghanistan - Taliban
Iran - Ayatollah
Saudi Arabia - King Abdullah

Things to know:
All Muslim countries
Theocracies mainly found in SW Asia
Very strict countries where religious texts guide laws
European Community -> European Union
Originally Known as European Community ->
West Germany
European Union by 1973
Now 27 States

Helped improve economy of western Europe
Helped make them globally competitive
Not in EU

Things that may be possibly asked:
Headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium
Most use the euro
Euro has surpassed the Dollar (1->1.09)
EU travelers don't have to exchange currency from border to border
Passport control is no longer regulated
A person can work in any EU country with no hassle of work visa
Space-Time Compression
Defined as the decreasing effect of distance on the speed of human travel across space, in movement of people and communication

Technology has shrunk the space time compression
compression :)
it makes sense
Small & Universalizing
Late 15th century by Guru Nanak (prophet)
Diffused from Pakistan to India
Global diaspora (scattered globally; US, UK, Canada)
Mainly in Punjab region Northern India
Don't believe in the caste system
Amristar, India

Golden Temple
(Holiest Sikh Site)
Types of Regions
1) Formal Regions are defined by related characteristics. The textbook has broken the earth into regions based on continental area & cultural styles.

2) Functional (Nodal) Regions are organized around interactions between places. (Linked by movement)

3) Perceptual (Vernacular) Regions have characteristics that are perceived to be similar. They are defined by popular feelings and images (“The Heartland”)

Bus Route or any route
Pineywoods of East Texas
Formal regions (physical or cultural similarities)
Rust Belt Bible Belt
Crude Birth Rates v Crude Death Rates
Rates reflect cultural expectations and economic/educational levels in country

Expectations of having more babies, getting pregnant early in life, or staying at home while man works
Rates reflect healthcare in a country.

Not that big variations worldwide compared to birth rates because basic health care has diffused globally
Export Processing Zones
Truck Farming
Commercial Farming and is a key aspect of fruit farming for the market

Use mechanization to produce large quantities of fruits and vegetables, which are sold to processors

Many use migrant workers to keep costs low.
(Two or more languages dominant in a country)
Examples seen
Quebec, Canada
*Venezuela - Mainly spanish speaking (monolingual)
Over 100 different lanugages causes centrifugal problems

Made English official language to help break language barrier
Quebec politics dominated by English speakers, force Quebec's citizens to learn English and use English in business
Turkish v Greeks
French Wollonia v Dutch Flanders
Spread of a desert due to human behavior and climate changes (mainly humans :D )
Happens in semi arid-arid regions

Causes: Overgrazing from pastoral nomadism
Do you save the land or do you eat?
Australia is most threatened at 83% then Africa at 53% of the land.

Sorry me messed up :(
Heartland Theory
Era for sea power ending (control over land is the key)

Eurasia was the world island and the key to dominating the world

Ruling the world meant controlling Eastern Europe (linked to the Communist effort to dominate Eastern Europe and United States containment policy against USSR)

USA dominance in the world helps crash the Heartland Theory. (A power exists outside the heartland)
Thomas Mathus Thoery

Argued that population growing exponentially while food supply was only growing arithmetically (pop. was growing at a faster rate than food supply)
Advocated for "positive checks" on pop. control (Birth control and celibacy)
Warned of "negative checks" (starvation and disease)
Argued that overpopulation was in part due to immorality

Argue that Malthus failed to predict agricultural innovations that can increase food supply rate (green revolution)

Problem isn't pop. growth rates but unequal distribution of wages and resources

Comparative Advantage
Idea that region will produce goods it can make at a lower cost than other regions can and will trade them for goods that other regions can make more efficiently than it can
Differences in Religious Temples
(Hindu v. Buddhist v. Taoist)
House for shrines and deities, not worship, emphasis on nature

Pagoda temple, several layers and tiers/roofs

Circular or hexagonal curving tiers, bright colors, and dragon symbols

Human Development Index (HDI)
4 Characteristics used to measure HDI

1. Life expectancy
2. Literacy Rate
3. Average education years
4. GDP and GDP Per Capital

Scale from 0-1 (100%)
-Utilized by UN (United Nations)

The equation for the index includes social, demographic, and economic factors, such
as literacy rate and amount of education, life expectancy, and gross domestic product
Large Extensive Grain Farming
Mostly mechanized commercial farming
Found mainly in North America, Eastern Europe (Ukraine, break basket of Europe)
Extensive v. Intensive
Uses large amounts of energy and money relative to the amount of land. Usually on small plots of land
Uses small amounts of energy and money relative to the amount of land. On large plots of land
British Enclosure Movement 1850's
Push in the 1850's to take land that had been formerly owned in common by all members of the village community for use and changed to individual ownership separated by walls, fences, or trenches
Owned by several people
Anybody can work this plot
Efficiency increased
Urban migration increased (people didn't have jobs)
Ethnic Cleansing

The Former Yugoslavia

After WW1, the allies created a new country, Yugoslavia

Leader of Yugoslavia dies, and everything falls apart

Slobodon Milosevic leads Bosnia to cleanse the area of Muslims (Croatia helps with this too)

Later Croatia becomes independent from Serbia causing 400,000 Serbians to flee Croatia to be in their home country
Example of Devolution: Breakup of state into smaller political units (Balkanization)
True distortion everywhere due to complete flat projection
Map projection showing world from north pole.
Distorted the father from center you go
Land masses get stretched
Poles are stretched and expanded
Map Projections
Threshold and Range
Can be used in Christaller's Central Place Theory, market range

Threshold vs. Range
Amount of people needed to make a business profit or stable

Ex: Wouldn't put a Jaguar car dealership in a village or small city. Wouldn't make sense when compared to population
How far people are willing to travel for a product or service

I need bread! (Small range)

I need surgery!! I have to travel to the city to get it (high range)
Language Refuge (Isolation)
An area that is relatively free from language diffusion and convergence. (Remains isolated)
Mountains and islands are the main isolators of language throughout history

Basques in between France and Spain (Thanks to the Pyrenees Mountains)
Basque Region
The leading city of a country.
The city is disproportionately larger than the rest of the cities in the country. It is usually a city that serves as the focus of a country and its culture.

Examples you may see
London, UK
Mexico City, Mexico
Paris, France
Copenhagen, Denmark
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Lagos, Nigeria

- the rank-size rule does not work for a country with a primate city

Primate City
Mexico City - 22 million next largest 2 million
Agglomeration - businesses clump together for the mutual benefit of the industry of the whole
Ex: Why your local shopping mall?
Ex: Detroit: General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler all located in the same area. (Secondary industries provided products and services to the three)

Deglomeration - occurs when the market has become saturated with a particular industry.
Too much competition, forrcing some of the businesses to relocate or close down
Agglomeration v Deglomeration
"Let's get coffee, then right after I want Ice Cream Too!!!"
Defined as the surrounding area serviced by the functions in an urban center.

Larger the city the larger the hinterland
Issues with measuring Economic Development
All measurements count the:
Formal Economy
– the legal economy that governments tax and monitor. (Ex: Working as a teacher)

All measurements do not count the:
Informal Economy
– the illegal or uncounted economy that governments do not tax or keep track of. (Ex: drug dealing, chip selling)

Nigeria and Sharia Law
Along with problems of many languages, Nigeria is divided by religion
North = Muslims
South = Christians

Recent News: Boko Haram has vowed to kill any Christians living in Nigeria
Sharia Law - Islamic law used in theocratic governments

Very Strict Law
May be stoned to death for adultery
China's Agriculture Region
Conflicts to Know About for Potential FRQ's
Rwanda Genocide - 1994 (Sub Saharan)
News - Genocide in Rwanda
Genocide in Darfur (Sub Saharan)
Will it ever happen?
Palestine-Israeli Conflict (SW Asia/Middle East)
Genocide resulting in the death of hundreds of thousands of Tutsi people by the hands of Hutu killers.

Hutu feared the Tutsi would re take the country and organized an ethnic cleansing

Some blame Belgium for starting a political power battle between the Hutu v Tutsi's

Sub-Saharan Africa Conflict Example
Battle over grazing land and oil fuels the fight in Darfur. Tens of thousands die and way more become refugees due to the North killing off the South in the region

North is government dominated Muslim v. South is Christian/Animist Farmers

Still happening today, even though South Sudan is now independent and became a new country.
Stemmed from the Holocaust after Zionism hit (Jews moving back to their homeland)
The US led by the UN helped establish Israel in Palestine
Jewish people began a campaign of land grabbing and took over Palestinian land
Originally was about religion, but now about water and land rights
Jerusalem - Crossroads of all three religions (Muslims, Christians, and Jews)
FRQ - Examples To Keep In Your Pocket
Unit 1: Geography Its Nature and Perspectives
5 Things To Know About This Unit
1. Greeks were the first society to introduce geography as a Subject (Eratosthenes is known as first person to use geography as a term)

2. 5 themes of Geography (Place, Region, Location, Human Environment Interaction, Spatial Interaction)

3. Diffusion is the spread of something from one place to another (Relocation, expansion, contagious, stimulus, and hierarchical are the different types)

4. 3 types of regions (Formal, Functional or Nodal, and Perceptual or Vernacular)

5. 3 Main aspects of distribution: Density, Concentration, and Patterns)
Environmental Determinism & Possibilism
Environmental Determinism - Theory that argues that human behavior is determined by the physical environment.
"We are a result of where we live"
Cold Climate people = Less Productive
Warm Climate people = More Productive

Possibilism - Theory that argues that the natural environment places limits on the possibilities available to people.
People, not the environment propel human development
People have ability to adjust to or modify their environment
* Know: Possibilism has replaced Determinism now
We humans are crazy inventive!
“Remote sensing is the acquisition of data about the Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long distance methods.”
“GPS or a Global Positioning System determines the precise position of something on Earth through satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.”

“GIS or a Geographic Information System is a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.” Information combined in different layers

GPS, GIS, and Remote Sensing
Now found in Cars, Cell Phones
Uses latitude and longitude coordinates (or absolute location)
Remember it by remembering it uses LAYERS to gather data

How we determine weather for the day or incoming natural disasters
Aerial photos
The relation of a feature’s size on the map to actual size.

Small scale or small fraction maps show a large area on the earth such as 1/1,000,000.
(Larger area, but less detail)

Large scale or large fraction maps show a small area on the surface such as 1/25,000 or 1/1000.
(Smaller area, but more detail)

Map Scale

SE Texas and Lousiana
0 10 200
|_____|_____| Miles
Houston Metro Area
0 2.5 5
|_____|_____| Miles
Capital Building
0 100 200
|_____|_____| Feet
“Cartography is the science of making maps.”
Analyze the Following:
Largest Scale of the 4 (more earth shown)
2nd Largest Scale
3rd (Scale is Smaller, less earth, more detail)
4th (Smallest Scale of the 4)
Largest Scale
Next Largest
Smallest Scale (way more detail)
Small = Large area (El Paso, TX)
Large = Small area (Canutillo High School)
Map Types
Isoline Maps - use lines of equal value to represent data like elevation, barometric pressure or temperature

Choropleth Maps - a thematic map in which a variable is depicted with shading patterns or colors.

Dot Map - a thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable.

Cartogram - a thematic map using relative size of political units to convey a value.

Distortion: Size, Shape, and Direction
The standard map projection used for nautical purposes.
Mercator Projection

Map Projections and Distortions
Distortion: Everything in small amounts.
It's primarily used to create visually appealing maps of the entire world.
Robinson Projection

Distortion: Shape and distance as one gets farther from the center.
Used when drawing Polar maps.
Azimuthal Equidistant Projection

Distortion: Shape, Distance and Angle
Primarily used where accurate representation of land area takes precedence over shape (equal area map)
Molleweide Projection

Goode Homolosine Projection
Eastern and Western hemispheres are separated into two pieces (Oceans are interrupted)
Absolute vs. Relative Location
Actual location of a place on earth using coordinates (longitude or latitude)
Using phrases to describe where a location is
"Up North", "Next to that Corner Store", "Back East", "On the West side"
Types of Regions
1) Formal Regions are defined by related characteristics. The textbook has broken the earth into regions based on continental area & cultural styles.

2) Functional (Nodal) Regions are organized around interactions between places. (Linked by movement)

3) Perceptual (Vernacular) Regions have characteristics that are perceived to be similar. They are defined by popular feelings and images (“The Heartland”)

Bus Route or any route
Pineywoods of East Texas
Formal regions (physical or cultural similarities)
Rust Belt Bible Belt
This functional regions on this map are based on the linkages between large banks of major central cities and the correspondent banks that they serve in smaller towns.

- geographers are concerned about the arrangement of features on the earth’s surface.

3 main properties of distribution are:

- the frequency that something occurs in a given space.

- changes in distribution-how close together-dispersed or clustered.

- the arrangement of the distribution of features in a given space.

Site v.s. Situation
Physical character of a place
A place's location relative to other places
Ex: New Orleans - 8ft below sea level makes it prone to floods

Ex: Anchorage, Alaska - Located on fault lines, prone to earthquakes

Ex: El Paso, TX - Located in a semi-arid desert region
Ex: New Orleans - Base of the Mississippi allowed trade, transportation, and city growth

Situated on the coast for port access and trade

Ex: El Paso, TX - Located along the Rio Grande River, and a border city with Juarez, Mexico
Diffusion of Cholera
Hierarchical Diffusion

Contagious Diffusion

Types of Diffusion
Relocation - Physical transfer of something from one place to another (movement across space) Ex: Christianity to the New World by the Spaniards

Hierarchical - Spread of ideas first from higher authority or someone popular downward to less prominent people (Islam from rulers to subjects or Crank that Soldier boy dance haha)

Contagious - Spreads outward from origin or hearth (aids or HIV virus)

Stimulus - Spread of a general concept but not the exact same item just idea. (Ex: first theme park was Knoxberry Farms then the idea of theme parks spread)
0° Latitude is the equator.
Latitude is also called
90° north latitude is the North Pole.
90° south latitude is the South Pole.

drawn between the North and South Poles (Longitude)
0° Longitude runs through Greenwich, England and is known as the Prime Meridian

Latitude and Longitude
Time Zones

“A Time zone is a region on Earth that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.”
Longitude plays an important role in time as earth rotates daily
15 degrees = 1 time zone (24 time zones)
15 degrees = 1 hour (24 hours in a day/360 degrees)
International date line - Follows 180 degrees longitude, start of new day

Cultural Hearth - centers of innovation and invention, the center or cradle of a culture.

FRQ Tips
For this part try to answer each of these on your own first then look it up if you need help

If you can answer each part in a minimum 2-4 sentences, then you're doing awesome

Think of each part of an FRQ as a short response section.

Restate the question or statement in your answer and then make sure you do what the question asks you to do.

Remember the multiple choice is mainly definitions and FRQ parts you need to be able to describe geography concepts

Unit - Cities and Urban Land Use
How has transportation contributed to the acceleration towards the development of suburbs in North American metropolitan areas since the 1950's and 1960's?

Simply, what changes in transportation helped people move to more suburban areas?

2-4 sentences
Possible Answers
The creation of freeways opened up large areas cheap land for development of low-cost housing by developers

Cars became more affordable allowing people greater access to places farther away from the city (suburbs)

Freeways increased the accessibility to the suburbs for individuals who could afford cars.
Unit - Industry
Define what a maquiladora is and where are they mainly distributed or located within Mexico?

2-4 sentences
Possible Answers
Foreign owned plants located in Mexico where outsourcing occurs
Factories that took advantage of cheap labor (sweatshops)
US owned factories that export assembled products to the US (export processing zones)

Located next to major points of entry to the US
Along the US and Mexican Border
Located where the ease of transportation to the US is made possible
Unit - Population
Identify and Explain TWO reasons why some geographers today don't believe Malthus's theory can't be used to predict future population issues.

So pretty much just think of two reasons and explain why critics don't believe in Malthus's theory.

2-4 sentences for each reason
Possible Answers
(Malthus believed that Population would grow exponentially or we would outgrow our world food supply, remember Malthus lived from 1766-1834 so his theory was based on the times)
Population has generally not grown as predicted by Malthus (ID)
Because contraceptives have been used more today (Explanation)
Because political policies, economic decisions, cultural beliefs that limit population growth (Explanation)
Because more countries are entering stage 3, 4, and 5, on the Demographic Transition Model which causes declining or slowing birth rates. (Explanation)

Food supply has grown faster than predicted by Malthus or the carrying capacity of the world has expanded (ID)
Because new technologies such as mechanization, industrial agriculture, agribusinesses, use of chemicals, irrigation, etc. has allowed more production of food.
More efficient farms with mechanization
Agricultural lands have expanded or Humans create new techniques to grow food and increase supply

Our ability to preserve food and distribute food to areas of need is much greater than when Malthus was alive (ID)
Improvements in all methods of transportation (highways, container shipping, refrigerated trucks
Improvements in food preservation (refrigeration, packing, processed food)

Unit - Cities and Urban Land Use
Describe a typical location of a squatter settlements within urban areas of megacities on the global periphery.

Describe at least two factor that contributes to the formation of squatter settlements. (If you can't two then at least do one)

2-4 sentences for each.
Possible Answers
For the first one any of the following would've worked
Squatter settlements in the global periphery are usually located on the edge of a city
Vacant or undesirable land, such as floodplains, dumps/landfills, cemeteries, close to industries, etc.
Land with no clear title of who it belongs to, people just build there house wherever or out of whatever

For the second one,
The formation of the squatter settlements form because of large scale rural to urban migration from people moving to the city in search of opportunity
Poverty (but need to elaborate on this)
Lack of enough affordable housing (public or private). Not enough houses for people coming into the city to afford.
Failure for the government to enforce land use policies, which wouldn't allow squatters to just build there house wherever it may seem convenient
The Kurd Conflict (SW Asia/Middle East)
For the test purposes, you mainly just need to know that the Kurds are a nation with no state (stateless nation) and to elaborate, it is difficult for them to gain an independent Kurdish territory, because their people are spread throughout 4-5 countries in the Middle East. Mainly Turkey, then Iran and Iraq and Syria

Quick Facts to understand more about them:
Example of a diaspora (meaning there people are scattered throughout different locations) kind of like the Jewish were before they were granted the state of Israel
They are mainly Sunni Muslims, but practice a different culture than other ethnicity in the region (They're not considered Arab)

Watch this video to learn more! It's short, simple, and sweet!
Tip: Remember for FRQ's you don't need to refer to specific dates or elaborate history, basically know who they are and why there is conflict in the region.
Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge - Genocide in Cambodia (SE Asia conflict)
Pol Pot was a revolutionary leader of the Khmer Rouge, who overtook Cambodia in the 1970's

What happened?
For test purposes:
Took over and became a totalitarian dictator with total control of the country
He wanted to turned Cambodia into an agrarian country (agriculture country) because he felt cities were evil and sprung revolution and dissent (rebellion) in countries.
Forced people out of the cities to work on harsh collective farms. He essentially opposed anybody who had western thought and executed all the educated people in the country. (25% of the country died under his leadership or 3 million people)
Religion was outlawed, books were burned, trade with the world was cut off.
China and Taiwan Conflict (East Asia Conflict)
What you need to know:
Taiwan is known as the Republic of China

China is known as the People's Republic of China

When Communism under Mao Zedong took over China, the former rulers and people who opposed Communism fled to Taiwan under Chiang Kai-Shek (you don't need to memorize names)

USA and NATO recognize Taiwan as an independent nation, but China doesn't recognize Taiwan's independence. (Feel it's still theirs)

Taiwan wants to be seen as independent
What is a lingua franca and what is it used for?
What is the most popular lingua franca in the world?
Unit 3 - Culture (language)
Possible Answer
A lingua franca is a language that is adopted as a common language between speakers whose native languages are different. It is also used as a common language for trade and business between different cultural groups.

English is the most dominant lingua franca in the world, meaning most countries use this language to communicate to each other.

Example: In India, dozens of language groups exist, so to make communication easy between the groups, English was adopted as the official language of the country.
Unit - Industry
Define and discuss the key features of the new international division of labor (also known as global division of labor)
Possible Answers
The new international division of labor is relocation of economic activities from a national to a global scale. Basically where jobs or industries are outsourced to other countries that produce the goods.

Dependence of the core on lower wage labors in LDC countries
Comparative advantage (locations that offer lower labor costs, which affects trade costs)
Outsourcing or off shoring discussion
Transnational corporations need to reduce costs
Trade agreements like NAFTA helps create this new division of labor

Unit - Political Geography
Identify two examples of walls or other barriers built by countries in the 20 and 21st century

Explain the specific purpose of one of these barriers
Possible Answers
Part 1 and 2
USA and Mexico wall (prevent immigration or stop the flow of illegal immigration or goods)
Berlin Wall (To prevent East Germans to flee to the West when the Soviets took control of the East)
North Korea and South Korea (To act as a buffer zone in order to reduce violence between the two)
Israel Palestine - Reduce the threat of terrorist activity between the gaza strip and west bank
Unit - Culture
Define the three major kinds of cultural regions studied in human geography: formal, functional, and vernacular

Provide at least one example for each definition.
Possible Answers
Formal region are geographical areas defined by the relatively similar presence of one or more distinct traits. (Ex: Area where majority of people share the same language or religion, Catholic and Spanish language along the US-Mexican Border)

Functional region are areas defined by a function or ability of the area to operate economically or politically. (Ex: cities, transportation network, cell phone service area)

Vernacular/Perceptual are defined by beliefs or attitudes about a place or culture. (Ex: Dixie in the South, the Sun Belt, the Corn Belt, the Rust Belt, the Bible Belt)
Unit - Development
Define and briefly describe the world systems analysis proposed by Immanuel Wallerstein. (This is about the core, semi-periphery, and periphery)
Possible Answer
Definition, the world systems theory separates the world between the core, semi-periphery, and periphery. These regions are based on its economic activity

The core employs higher end economic services where as the periphery involves more agriculture

Core has more tertiary or quaternary economy.

Semi periphery are mainly the manufacturing center

They are all dependent on each other. Periphery depends on the core to fund employment. The core needs the periphery for natural resources.
Unit - Political Geography
Discuss they differences between Mackinder's Heartland theory and Spykman's Rimland theory.
Possible Answers
The Heartland Theory believed that land based power rather than sea power would ultimately rule the world. This would take place if one was to conquer Russia and Eastern Europe.

The Rimland theory proposed that those who control the rim of Eurasia was the key to global power. The rimland would allow the containment of the Heartland.
Unit - Political Geography
Using contemporary examples, explain how each of the following may detract from the development of national identity and weaken a state
Possible Answers
Examples: Belgium, Canada, Russia and Chechnya, Yugoslavia, Rwanda

Ethnic tensions erodes loyalty to a state
Can lead to balkanization, separatism, devolution, ethnonationalism
Immigration causes cultural change
Unit - Cities
Give a detailed account of THREE consequences of the rapid growth of squatter settlements. The three consequences you discuss may be social, economical, political, or environmental
Possible Answers
1) Unhealthy living conditions lead to high death rates
2) Development of gangs and higher crime rate
3) Development of political unrest by the people
4) Increase of water pollution due to lack of sanitation systems
5) Visual pollution for the country (looks ugly)
6) Increase of available cheap labor
7) Strain on infrastructure (need for schools, medical care, etc)
Unit - Development and Industry
Explain an impact of the new international division of labor on the socioeconomic structure of the United States
Possible Answers
Unemployment - Job loss affects the middle class (rust belt) Companies moving overseas
Deindustrialization - requires re education for tertiary sector jobs
Profit - Rise of retail jobs in the USA and consumerism
Internal migration - moving from the rust belt to the sun belt for employment opportunities
Unit - Culture and Religions
X = Latterday Saints (mormonism)
Y = Lutheran
Z = Baptist

X= Mormons began in eastern United States but fled persecution to the West where they could freely practice
Moved to new farm areas

Y= Original migrants from Europe. Brought there religion with them and spread due to railroad companies granting them farms in this area

Z = Baptistm appealed to African Americans who were excluded from Protestantism
Immigration Question
A - Europe, Overpopulation, Persecution, Lack of Jobs, Instability from WW1

B - Shift to secondary sector (manufacturing)

C - Asia and Latin America, Poverty, Political Instability, End of Cold War, Fleeing Population pressure, Lack of Jobs
Migration in the Late 20th Century
Core-Periphery = Uneven spatial distribution of economy
Distance Decay = Increased distance means less interaction and vice versa
Chain Migration = Migrants will follow same path as people before them

Standard language
- an official language sustained by the state in the form of state examination for teachers, civil servants and others.

- regional variation of a standard language.

Language family
- a group of languages descended from a single, earlier tongue.

Language subfamily
- a further division of language groups. E.g. Romance language is a subfamily of Indo-European.

Language Terms

Historical Linkages among Languages

Language Family - collection of languages related through a common ancestral language (Indo-European)

Language Branch - a collections of languages within a family (Latin -> Romance)

Language Group - a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in recent past (German & English)

Monolingual State

a country in which only one language is spoken

Multilingual State
a country in which more than one language is in use

Official Language
should a multilingual state adopt an official language?

Lingua franca

A language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce.

Pidgin language

a language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary.
Creole language

a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people.

What spatial Interaction helps create:

Mother Tongue
- the first language spoken by Homo sapiens about 200,000 years ago.

Language divergence
- the differentiation that takes place over time and distance.

Language convergence
- when long isolated languages make contact through diffusion.

Language replacement
- traditional languages of small groups of less advanced people were replaced or greatly modified by an invading tongue.

Linguists can find linkages among languages by examining
sound shifts
– a slight change in a word across languages over time.

Origin & Diffusion of Languages

The Basque speak the Euskera language, which is in no way related to any other language family in Europe.

How did Euskera survive?

India had 4 language families with the largest being Indo-European and Dravidian.

There are 15 major languages and all but 4 are Indo-European.

Over 1,600 lesser languages.

The largest Indo-European language is Hindi

Largest Dravidian tongue is Telugu.

Languages of India


More than 400 different languages.


More hundreds of languages

Linguistic Fragmentation
- Condition in which many languages are spoken each by a relatively small number of people

English was chosen as the official language
Flanders (Flemish language)
Wallonia (French language)

Fig. 5-16: There has been much tension in Belgium between Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.

Language Divisions in Belgium

Fig. 5-18: Although Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the province of Québec, where 80% of the population speaks French.

French-English Boundary in Canada

Major reasons people change toponyms:

After decolonization
After a political revolution
To memorialize people or events
To commodify or brand a place

Changing Toponyms

Top Ten Most Commonly Spoken Languages
(Percentages for first language speakers only)

Mandarin Chinese 12.44 %
Spanish 4.85 %
English 4.83 %
Arabic 3.25 %
Hindi 2.68 %
Bengali 2.66 %
Portuguese 2.62 %
Russian 2.12 %
Japanese 1.8 %
Standard German 1.33 %
Source: The CIA factbook, 2009 estimates
Apartheid (South Africa)
was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation from 1948 to 1994
Black Africans were separated into certain areas of South Africa and even given a curfew
Nelson Mandela helped lead them to Independence

Partition of India -> Kashmir Conflct
What you need to know:
India was controlled by great Britain originally (cotton)
Following WW2 Britain didn't have the power to hold on to the colony anymore so they Partitioned India
Gandhi played a key role in India's independence (but was killed by a Hindu before the partition)
British gave India to Hindus and Pakistan/Bangladesh to Muslims
Over 1 million people were killed in the forced move to their homeland
To this day, Kashmir is still being fought over
Yugoslavia and Balkanization
April 1, 2010 - USA Pop. 308,745,538
Imaginary line showing the distinguish between world development
Not useful anymore as countries in the south has gained more wealth by industrialization
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